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Reliable, Continuous, Closed-Circuit 4°K Refrigeration for a Maser Application

  • T. E. Hoffman
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 8)

Abstract

In the past several years, rapid advances of technology have greatly reduced the time interval for new scientific discoveries to bridge the gap from laboratory to actual field use, While most attention has been focused on the actual devices under development, certain supporting technological advances have also been greatly stimulated. Reliable, continuous refrigeration in the region of 4°K is one of these supporting technologies that has resulted from the development of the maser and its recent incorporation into actual operational systems.

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References

  1. 1.
    H. O. McMahon and W. E. Gifford, Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol. 5, K. D. Timmerhaus (ed.), Plenum Press, New York (1960); p. 354, 368.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    W. E. Gifford and T. E. Hoffman, Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol. 6, K. D. Tirnmerhaus (ed.), Plenum Press, New York (1961), p. 82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    W. E. Gifford, Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol.7, K. D. Tirnmerhaus (ed.), Plenum Press, New York (1962), p. 551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1963

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. E. Hoffman
    • 1
  1. 1.Arthur D. Little, Inc.CambridgeUSA

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