Just 300 years ago, Power carried out experiments in which he froze a jar containing vinegar eels by immersion in a mixture of ice and salt. After thawing the vinegar two to three hours later, he found that the eels were as active as ever. From this and other experiments, which included overnight freezing,. Power concluded that cold, unlike heat, did not possess a killing property. Some 20 years later in 1683, Boyle published the results of his work on the freezing of frogs and fishes. While many of his experimental subjects survived encasement in ice, fish subjected to this treatment for three days were killed. He thus drew the conclusion that cold was no less effective than heat in its capacity to destroy living things. Réaumur in 1736 and Duhamel and Buffon in 1737 published their observations on the freezing of insects and plant tissues, respectively. The great Italian scientist Spallanzani described the effects of freezing on many varieties of life, including protozoa, fish, amphibia, reptiles, birds, and mammals, in 1787.
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