Heat Transfer to an Unsaturated Bath of Liquid Helium II
Liquid helium 11 exhibits an unusually large capacity to transmit heat. This unusual behavior has been explained by the supposition that liquid helium II is composed of two different components with respect to the thermal energy spectrum [1,2]. A unique counterflow mechanism involving these components accounts for the extraordinary capacity to transmit heat. When heat is transferred from solid objects immersed in liquid helium II, the thermal transport capacity of the liquid helium II is so large that it is generally considered there are no temperature differentials in the bath. The heat transfer in this situation is controlled by thermal resistances which develop in the vicinity of the heated surface.
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