A Continuous Helium II Refrigerator

  • W. Baldus
  • A. Sellmaier
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 13)


At the present time, experiments with superfluid helium are still being carried out in relatively small cryostats. Reduction of the helium temperature down to the λ-point and below is accomplished with the help of a vacuum pump which pumps on the helium and reduces its vapor pressure, The evaporating helium is warmed up in the intervening piping to the pump to nearly room temperature; the enthalpy difference between the boiling temperature of the helium and room temperature is essentially wasted. In small experimental arrangements and if the duration of tests is relatively shorty such loss of enthalpy difference can be neglected, With the efficient helium liquefiers now available, sufficient helium can be produced continuously and test operations with superfluid helium are possible-by these means, even if it becomes necessary to evaporate quantities of up to 50 liters/hr and more for short durations of time.


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    R. Doll and W. Wiedemann, Linde Reports on Science and Technology, Wiesbaden, 2:24 (1961).Google Scholar
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    W. Kanoldt, in: International Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Plenum Press, New York. (1965), p. 392.Google Scholar
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    R. Doll and F. X. Eder, Kältetechnik, 16:5 (1964).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Baldus
    • 1
  • A. Sellmaier
    • 1
  1. 1.Linde AktiengesellschaftMunichGermany

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