Cytokines can influence the growth and spread of a tumour in both positive and negative ways. Endogenous cytokines or those used as therapy may act as direct cytostatic agents preventing cell proliferation and encouraging differentiation. In some microenvironments, particularly when nutritional conditions are suboptimal, cytokines may also be cytotoxic, initiating apoptosis of the tumour cells. Therapeutic administration, local endogenous cytokines or genetically engineered local cytokine production may stimulate host immune responses to the tumour leading to cell and cytokine mediated destruction of the malignant cells. Under certain circumstances cytokines can also mediate destruction of the tumour neovasculature or deplete the tumour environment of essential nutrients.
KeywordsOvarian Cancer Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Tumour Necrosis Factor Receptor Human Ovarian Cancer Tumour Necrosis Factor Antagonist
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