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The Vibrational Spectra of Hydrogen-Bonded Complexes

  • J. L. Wood
Chapter

Abstract

Hydrogen bonding is involved in an immense variety of molecular interactions, and, as Pimentel and McClellan, in their excellent monograph1 point out, any definition risks criticism as being too restrictive, or too elastic. Furthermore, with the passage of time, it may appear that some shift of the boundaries becomes desirable. It therefore seems best to propose an ad-hoc definition—“Hydrogen bonding is an attractive interaction between two molecules, or between two parts of the same molecule, which requires the specific presence of a hydrogen atom in the vicinity.” Here we are concerned with intermolecular complexes. Hydrogen-bonded complexes are often classified by the nature of the proton donor AH, or acid, and that of the acceptor B, or base. Since B can be expected to lose electrons to AH in forming the complex, B can also be regarded as the electron donor, and AH the electron acceptor2. The nature of the complex is, however, independent of which partner actually provides the proton; pyridine and phenol produce the same complex as pyridinium ion and phenate ion, so this does not serve to distinguish the moiety to be chosen as the donor. It is preferable to regard the proton donor as the moiety which retains the proton on dissociation. Often the moiety to which the proton is more closely attached can be distinguished on spectroscopic grounds, e.g. from the frequencies of internal modes of A and B, or from electronic transitions. In such cases the unequal sharing of the proton is well represented by the symbolisation AH—B. However, in many interesting complexes the location of the proton turns out to be surprisingly elusive, and even through a series of similar complexes, such as those formed between phenol and related bases, there may be indication of the proton switching from the phenol to the base when the relative pK’s are avourable3,4. Since we are concerned with the nature of the complex, rather than the manner in which it was formed, it seems better to avoid the use of the terms proton donor and acceptor when the location of the proton is uncertain.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. L. Wood
    • 1
  1. 1.Chemistry DepartmentImperial College of Science and TechnologyLondonEngland

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