Behavioral Effects of Gonadal Hormones and Contraceptive Steroids in Primates

  • Richard P. Michael


Although there is no doubt that ovarian steroids are essential for the expression of sexual receptivity in those female mammals which show well-defined periods of oestrus or heat, the extent to which this holds true for the higher primates, including man, remains controversial. Although the basic observations on primate sexual behavior must be made in the field, significant contributions to our understanding of the hormonal factors controlling sexual activity have been made by controlled studies under laboratory conditions (1). Nevertheless, a systematic approach to these questions is only just beginning.


Sexual Behavior Menstrual Cycle Rhesus Monkey Female Partner Gonadal Hormone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Michael, R.P.: Gonadal hormones and the control of primate behavior, in Endocrinology and Human Behavior, ed. Michael, R. P. Oxford University Press, London, p. 69–93 (1968).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Carpenter, C.R.: A field study of the behavior and social relations of howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata). Comp. Psychol. Monogr. 10:1–168 (1934).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Carpenter, C.R.: Behavior of red spider monkeys in Panama J. Mammal. 16:171–180 (1935).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jay, P.: The common langur of North India. In Primate Behavior ed. deVore, I. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, pp. 197–249 (1965).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Carpenter, C. R.: Sexual behavior of free-ranging rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). I. Specimens, procedures and behavioral characteristics of estrus. J. Comp. Psychol. 33:113–142 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Carpenter, C.R.: Sexual behavior of free-ranging rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), II. Periodicity of estrus, homosexual, autoerotic and non-conformist behavior. J. Comp. Psychol. 33:143–162 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Altmann, S.A.: A field study of the sociobiology of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Ann, N.Y. Acad. Sci. 102:338–435 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Southwick, G.B., Beg, M.A. and Siddiqi, M.R.: Rhesus monkeys in North India. In Primate Behavior ed. deVore, I. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, p, 111–159 (1965).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Imanishi, E.: Social behavior in Japanese monkeys, (Macaca fuscata) In Primate Social Behavior ed. Southwick, C.H. London, p. 68–81 (1963).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bolwig, N.: A study of the behavior of the chacma baboon (Papio ursinus) Behavior 14:136–163 (1959).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Washburn, S.L. and deVore, I.: The social life of baboons Sci. Amer. 204:62–71 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hall, K.R.L. and deVore, I.: Baboon social behavior. In Primate Behavior, ed. deVore, I. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, p. 53–110 (1965).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kummer, H. and Kurt, F.: Social units of a free-living population of hamadryas baboons. Folia primat. 1:4–19 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Young, W.C. and Orbison, W.D.: Changes in selected features of behavior in pairs of oppositely-sexed chimpanzees during the sexual cycle and after ovariectomy. J. Comp. Psychol. 37:107–143 (1944).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Goodall, J.: Chimpanzees of the Goiribe Stream Reserve. In Primate Behavior, ed. deVore, I. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, p. 425–473 (1965).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ball, J. and Hartman, C.G.: Sexual excitability as related to the menstrual cycle in the monkey. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynec. 39:117–119 (1935).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Michael, E.P. and Herbert, J.: Menstrual cycle influences grooming behavior and sexual activity in the rhesus monkey. Science 140;500–501 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Michael, R. P.: Some aspects of the endocrine control of sexual activity in primates. Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. 58: 595–598 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Michael, R.P., Herbert, J. and Welegalla, J.: Ovarian hormones and grooming behavior in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) under laboratory conditions. J. Endocr. 36:263–279 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Michael, R.P., Herbert, J. and Welegalla, J.; Ovarian hormones and the sexual behavior of the male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) under laboratory conditions. J. Endocr. 39:81–98 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Michael, R. P. and Welegalla, J.; Ovarian hormones and the sexual behavior of the female rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) under laboratory conditions. J, Endocr. 41: 407–420 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zuckerman, S.: The Social Life of Monkeys and Apes. Kegan Paul, London (1932).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Maslow, A.H. and Flanzbaum, S.: Role of dominance in the social and sexual behavior of infra-human primates, II. An experimental determination of the behavior syndrome of dominance. J. Genet. Psychol. 48:278–309 (1936).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ring, J.R.; The estrogen-progesterone induction of sexual receptivity in the spayed female mouse. Endocr. 34;269–275 (1944).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Boling, J.L. and Blandau, R.J.; The oestrogen-progesterone induction of mating responses in the spayed female rat. Endocr. 25:259–364 (1939).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dempsey, E.W., Hertz, R. and Young, W.C.: The experimental induction of oestrus (sexual receptivity) in the normal and ovariectomized guinea pig. Am. J. Physiol. 116:201–209 (1936).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kent, G.C. and Liberman, M.J,: Induction of psychic es- trus in the hamster with progesterone administered via the lateral brain ventricle. Endocr. 45:29–32 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Makepeace, A.W., Weinstein, G.L. and Friedman, M.H.t The effect of progestin and progesterone on ovulation in the rabbit. J. Physiol. Lond. 119:512–516 (1937).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Marshall, F.H.A. and Hammond, J.; Experimental control by hormone action of the oestrus cycle in the ferret. J. Endocr. 4:159–168 (1945).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Michael, R.P., Herbert, J- and Saayman, G.: Loss of ejaculation in male rhesus monkeys after administration of progesterone to their female partners. Lancet ii:1015–1016 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Michael, R.Po, Saayman, G. and Zumpe, D.: Sexual attractiveness and receptivity in rhesus monkeys. Nature 215:554–556 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Michael, R.P., Saayman, G. and Zumpe, D.: Inhibition of sexual receptivity by progesterone in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), J. Endocr. 39:309–310 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Michael, R.P. and Saayman, G.: Individual differences in the sexual behavior of male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) under laboratory conditions. Anim. Behav. 15:460–466 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Michael, RoP. and Saayman, G.: Sexual performance and the f timing of ejaculation in male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol 64:213–218 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Keeler, M., Kane, F. and Daly, R.: An acute schizophrenic episode following abrupt withdrawal of Enovid in a patient with previous postpartum psychiatric disorder. Am. J. Psychiat. 120:1123–1124 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kane, F., Daly, R., Ewing, J. and Keeler, M.: Mood and I behavioral changes with progestational agents. Brit. J. Psychiat. 113:265–268 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Grant, E.C.G. and Mears, E.: Mental effects of oral contraceptives. Lancet i: 945–946 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1969

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard P. Michael
    • 1
  1. 1.Primate Research Center (Institute of Psychiatry)Bethlem Royal HospitalBeckenham, KentEngland

Personalised recommendations