Effect of Contraceptive Hormone Preparations on Plasma Fibrinolytic Activity

  • Pieter Brakman


The variety of metabolic processes discussed at this conference indicates the growing interest in the effects of gonadal hormones on the organism. The introduction of progestational hormones with estrogen as oral contraceptives and the widespread use of these drugs has provided the biologist with almost unlimited material for study. Simultaneously, the unwanted side effects make the secondary effects of these hormones of importance to the clinician.


Oral Contraceptive Fibrinolytic Activity Fibrinolytic System Gonadal Hormone Fibrinogen Concentration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Dienst, A.: Kritische Studien über die Pathogenese der Eklampsie auf Grund pathologisch-anatomischer Befunde, Blut- und Harnuntersuchungen eklamptischer Mütter und deren Früchte. Arch. Gynäk. 65: 369–464 (1902).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Birnbaum, R. and Osten, A.: Untersuchungen über die Gerinnung des Blutes während der Menstruation. Arch. Gynäk. 80: 373–383 (1906).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gram, H.C.: The results of a new method for determining the fibrin percentage in blood and plasma. Acta Med. Scand. 56:107- 161 (1922).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Robinson, A.J.: Clotting Factors and Fibrinolysis in Relation to Menstruation, Pregnancy, and the Use of Contraceptive Drugs. Thesis, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1965.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sise, H.: Anovulatory hormones and blood coagulation. In Blood Coagulation, Thrombosis, and Female Hormones, Washington, D.C., (editors: T. Astrup and I.S. Wright), 1967, pp. 19–23.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Turksoy, R.N., Phillips, L.L. and Southam, A.L.: Influence of ovarian function on the fibrinolytic enzyme system. I. Ovulatory and anovulatory cycles. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynec. 82: 1211–1215 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Egeberg, O. and Owren, P.A.: Oral contraception and blood coagulability. Brit. Med. J. 1: 220–221 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brakman, P., Albrechtsen, O.K. and Astrup, T.: A comparative study of coagulation and fibrinolysis in blood from normal men and women. Brit. J. Haemat. 12: 74–85 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brody, J.I. and Finch, S.C.: Improvement of factor X deficiency during pregnancy. New Engl. J. Med. 263: 996–999 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Haber, S.: Norethynodrel in the treatment of factor X deficiency. Arch. Intern. Med. 114: 89–94 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Schiffman, S. and Rapaport, S.I.: Increased factor VIII levels in suspected carriers of hemophilia A taking contraceptives by mouth. New Engl. J. Med. 275: 599 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Beller, F.K. and Porges, R.F.: Blood coagulation and fibrinolytic enz3mie studies during cyclic and continuous application of progestational agents. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynec. 97: 448–459 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nilsson, I.M. and Kullander, S.: Coagulation and fibrinolytic studies during use of gestagens. Acta Obstet. Gynec. Scand. 46: 286–303 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Owren, P.A.: Blood coagulation, thrombosis, and contraceptive homones. In Blood Coagulation, Thrombosis, and Female Hormones, Washington, B.C., (editors: T. Astrup and I.S. Wright), 1967, pp. 11–15.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brakman, P., Albrechtsen, O.K. and Astrup, T.: Blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and contraceptive hormones. J. Amer. Med. Ass. 199: 69–74 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Biezenski, J.J. and Moore, H.C.: Fibrinolysis in normal pregnancy. J. Clin. Path. 11: 306–310 (1958).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brakman, P.: The fibrinolytic system in human blood during pregnancy. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynec. 94: 14–20 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gräfenberg, E.: Der Antitrypsingehalt des müterlichen Blutserums während der Schwangerschaft. Münch. Med. Wschr. 56: 702–704 (1909).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Maccabruni, F.: Esperienze di coltivazione “in vitro” del cancro uterino umano. Ann. Ostet. Ginec. 36: 57–65 (1914).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Guest, M.M.: Profibrinolysin, antifibrinolysin, fibrinogen and urine fibrinolytic factors in the human subject. J. Clin. Invest. 33: 1553–1559 (1954).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Brakman, P. and Astrup, T.: Selective inhibition in human pregnancy blood of urokinase induced fibrinolysis. Scand. J. Clin,. Lab. Invest. 15: 603–609 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Brakman, P.: Fibrinolysis in blood during pregnancy and hormone treatment. In Blood Coagulation, Thrombosis, and Female Hormones, Washington, D.C., (editors: T. Astrup and I.S. Wright), 1967, pp. 27–32.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shaper, A.G., Macintosh, D.M., Evans, C.M. and Kyobe, J.: Fibrinolysis and plasminogen levels in pregnancy and the puerperium. Lancet 2: 706–708 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Phillips, L.L. and Skrodelis, V.: The fibrinolytic enzyme system in normal hemorrhagic and disease states. J. Clin. Invest. 27: 965–973 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hedner, U. and Nilsson, I.M.: Determination of plasminogen in human plasma by a casein method. Thrombos. Diathes. Haemorrh. 14: 545–561 (1965).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Smith, O.W. and Smith, G.V.S.: A fibrinolytic enzyme in menstruation and late pregnancy toxemia. Science 102: 253–254 (1945).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dausset, J., Bergerot-Blondel, Y. and Colin, M.: Fibrinolyse du sang peripherique au cours du flux menstruel physiologique. Transactions of the 6th Congress of the European Society of Haematology, Copenhagen, 1957, pp. 490–493.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Macfarlane, R.G. and Biggs, R.: Observations on fibrinolysis. Spontaneous activity associated with surgical operations, trauma, etc. Lancet 2: 862–864 (1946).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Beller, F.K., Goebelsmann, U., Douglas, G.W. and Johnson, A.: The fibrinolytic system during the menstrual cycle. Obstet. Gynec. 23: 12–16 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hume, R.: The relationship to age and cerebral vascular accident of fibrin and fibrinolytic activity. J. Clin. Path. 14: 167–171 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Brakman, P. and Astrup, T.: Effects of female hormones, used as oral contraceptives, on the fibrinolytic system in blood. Lancet 2: 10–12 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Brakman, P., Sobrero, A.J. and Astrup, T.: Effects of different systemic contraceptives on blood fibrinolysis. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynec. in print (1968).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Phillips, L.L., Skrodelis, V. and Furey, O.A.: The fibrinolytic enzyme system in prostatic cancer. Cancer 12: 721–730 (1959).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Phillips, L.L., Turksoy, R.N. and Southam, A.L.: Influence of ovarian function on the fibrinolytic enzyme system. II. Influence of exogenous steroids. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynec. 82: 1216–1220 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nagayama, M., Maki, M., Kikuchi, I., Kanbe, K., Sasaki, K. and Sasaki, Ky.: Effect of estrogens on blood clotting and plasmin systems. Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 86: 219–230 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tagnon, H.J., Schulman, P., Whitmore, W.F. and Leone, L.A.: Prostatic fibrinolysin. Study of a case illustrating role of hemorrhagic diathesis of cancer of the prostate. Amer. J. Med. 15: 875–884 (1953).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gillman, T., Naidoo, S.S. and Hathorn, M.: Sex differences in plasma fibrin, fibrinolytic capacity and lipids as influenced by ingested fat, gonadectomy and hormone implants; possible implications for pathogenesis of coronary occlusion. Clin. Sci. 17: 393–408 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fearnley, G.R.: Fibrinolysis. Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd., London, 1965.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fearnley, G.R., Chakrabarti, R., Hocking, E.D. and Evans, J.F.: Fibrinolytic effects of diguanides plus ethyloestrenol in occlusive vascular disease. Lancet 2: 1008–1011 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Winther, O.: Testosterone and fibrinolytic activity. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. Suppl. 93: 207–210 (1966).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Oliver, M.D. and Boyd, G.S.: Effect of bilateral ovarieeton on coronary-artery disease and serum lipid levels. Lancet 2:690- 694 (1959).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Higano, N., Robinson, R.W. and Cohen, W.D.: Increased incidence of cardiovascular disease in castrated women. New Engl. J. Med. 268: 1123–1125 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Oliver, M.F. and Boyd, G.S.: Influence of reduction of serum lipids on prognosis of coronary heart-disease. Lancet 2: 499–505 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Stamler, J., Pick, R., Katz, L.N., Pick, A., Kaplan, B.M., Berkson, D.M. and Century, D.: Effectiveness of estrogens for therapy of myocardial infarction in middle-age men. J. Amer. Med. Ass. 183: 632–638 (1963).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Maonnorston, J., Moore, F.J., Kuzma, O.T., Magidson, O. andWeiner, J.: Effect of Premarin on survival in men with myocardial infarction. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. 105: 618–620 (1960).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gore, I., Iwanaga, Y. and Gore, H.: Inhibition of dietary atherosclerosis in rabbits by Norethynodrel. J. Atheroscler. Res. 2: 361–366 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Daniel, D.G., Campbell, H. and Turnbull, A.C.: Puerperal thromboembolism and suppression of lactation. Lancet 2: 287–289 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Veterans Administration Co-operative Urological Research Group: Treatment and survival of patients with cancer of the prostate. Surg. Gynec. Obstet, 124: 1011–1017 (1967).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bailar, J.C.: Thromboembolism and oestrogen therapy. Lancet 2: 560 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Subcommittee of the Medical Research Council: Risk of thromboembolic disease in women taking oral contraceptives. Brit. Med. J. 2: 355–359 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Drill, V.A. and Calhoun, D.W.: Oral contraceptives and thromboembolic disease. J. Amer. Med. Ass. 206: 77–84 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Buitrago, B. and Jensen, O.M.: The effect of an oral contraceptive as a preparatory mechanism in the generalized Shwartzman reaction in rabbits. Acta Path. Microbiol. Scand. 73: 323–337 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1969

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pieter Brakman
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Medical ResearchThe James F. Mitchell FoundationUSA

Personalised recommendations