Replicas, Shadowing, and Negative Staining

  • Michael J. Dykstra


As has been mentioned previously, TEM images are primarily produced by the electron- scattering properties of a specimen. Contrast occurs when there are specimen areas that stop (scatter) electrons and also areas that let most of the electrons pass through. Thus, the image results from subtractive contrast. We impregnate tissues and sections with a variety of heavy metals to scatter electrons, as discussed in Chapter 6, but we can also surround particulates with heavy metals (negative staining) or cover particulates, cells, and tissues with thin metal films that have areas of differential beam-stopping capability (replicas produced by shadowing). This chapter will discuss these two added techniques for building subtractive contrast, pointing out the commonly used techniques and a few remedies to specific problems that may be encountered.


Negative Staining Ammonium Molybdate Vacuum Evaporator Rotary Pump Grid Surface 
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Copyright information

© Michael J. Dykstra 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael J. Dykstra
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Veterinary MedicineNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA

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