Preliminary Examination of Crystals by Optical and X-Ray Methods

  • M. F. C. Ladd
  • R. A. Palmer


In this chapter we shall discuss the interaction between crystals and two different electromagnetic radiations, light and X-rays. Light, with its longer wavelength (5000–6000 Å), can reveal only limited information about crystal structures, whereas X-rays with wavelengths of less than about 2 Å can be used to determine the relative positions of atoms in crystals. A preliminary examination of a crystal aims to determine its space group and unit-cell dimensions, and may be carried out by a combination of optical and X-ray techniques. The optical methods described here are simple, but, nevertheless, often very effective; they should be regarded as a desirable prerequisite to an X-ray structure determination.


Reciprocal Lattice Preliminary Examination Orthorhombic Crystal Uniaxial Crystal Vibration Direction 
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Crystal Optics

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X-Ray Scattering and Reciprocal Lattice

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Powder Methods

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Precession Method

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. F. C. Ladd
    • 1
  • R. A. Palmer
    • 2
  1. 1.University of SurreyGuildfordEngland
  2. 2.Birkbeck CollegeUniversity of LondonLondonEngland

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