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Calcium and Cardiac Relaxation

  • James P. Morgan
  • Roderick MacKinnon
  • Maurice Briggs
  • Judith K. Gwathmey

Abstract

Excitation-contraction coupling in the heart can be divided into four steps as shown in Figure 3-1. First, an action potential depolarizes the sarcolemma. Second, this depolarization releases Ca2+ from the subsarcolemmal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), allows entry of calcium from outside the sarcolemma, or both. Third, Ca2+ diffuses to troponin-C on the thin filaments, and, by a complex sequence of events, the binding of calcium to this regulatory protein permits actin and myosin to interact. Fourth, relaxation occurs when the SR reaccumulates Ca2+, causing it to dissociate from troponin C. The Na+−Ca2+ exchanger and Ca2+ pump, both located on the sarcolemma, ultimately restore Ca2+ to resting levels. The cellular mechanisms involved in each step are still not completely understood and in some cases remain subject to considerable controversy. Various aspects of the excitation-contraction process are considered in detail in several excellent reviews (1–4).

Keywords

Calcium Transient Contractile Apparatus Intracellular Calcium Transient Cardiac Relaxation Papillary Muscle Preparation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishing 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • James P. Morgan
  • Roderick MacKinnon
  • Maurice Briggs
  • Judith K. Gwathmey

There are no affiliations available

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