Metabolism of Chemical Carcinogens

  • J. H. Weisburger
  • G. M. Williams
Part of the Cancer, A Comprehensive Treatise book series (C)


The concept that some types of cancer might be caused by environmental factors traces back to the observation of the English physician Pott in the late 18th century that human scrotal cancer in Great Britain was associated with the occupation of his affected patients as chimney sweeps. Since that time, people in other occupations have been demonstrated to have certain risks of developing cancer at some sites. Overall, however, occupational cancers are relatively rare events that affect only limited numbers of individuals (Saffiotti and Wagoner, 1976; Wynder and Gori, 1977; Higginson in Emmelot and Kriek, 1979; Higginson and Muir, 1981; Sontag, 1981). The bulk of human cancers were until recently considered to stem from unknown elements. It was primarily the examination of international incidence rates of various types of cancer, and the fact that the incidence depends in part on the site of residence, that led to the concept that many types of human cancer are caused, mediated, or modified by environmental factors (Higginson and Muir, 1981; Haenszel in Fraumeni, 1975; Wynder and Hirayama, 1977; Doll in Emmelot and Kriek, 1979; Hirayama, 1979). Thus, examination of the incidence of two types of cancer of the digestive tract, namely stomach cancer and large-bowel cancer, in populations in Europe, Latin America, Japan, and the North American continent indicated clearly that they have quite different causative and modifying elements, but both are associated mainly with dietary factors. Lung cancer, on the other hand, has been definitely traced in most cases to the personal habit of cigarette smoking (Hammond in Hiatt et al. 1977; Doll in Emmelot and Kriek, 1979; Wynder and Hoffmann, 1979). In all of these instances, it is quite certain that specific types of chemicals or mixtures of chemicals are the determining factors. Thus, overall, the majority of human cancer may be due to chemicals, either as naturally occurring chemicals or as chemical mixtures in diet, the nature of which remains to be defined in many instances, or as specific types of synthetic chemicals, for which exposure occurs mainly in the occupational setting.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. H. Weisburger
    • 1
  • G. M. Williams
    • 1
  1. 1.Naylor Dana Institute for Disease PreventionAmerican Health FoundationValhallaUSA

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