Advertisement

Radiation Carcinogenesis

  • John B. Storer
Chapter
Part of the Cancer, A Comprehensive Treatise book series (C)

Abstract

Ionizing radiation in sufficiently high dosage acts as a complete carcinogen in that it serves as both initiator and promoter. Further, cancers can be induced in nearly any tissue or organ of man or experimental animals by the proper choice of radiation dose and exposure schedule. Principal interest in radiation as an environmental carcinogen is not at very high dosage levels, however, since relatively few individuals receive such high dosages and in most cases where they do the radiation is received as localized treatment for a malignant tumor. Additionally, radiation delivered to the entire body, as is usually the case for environmental exposure, is acutely fatal (within weeks) at doses higher than a few hundred rads. For these reasons, the major goal of studies on radiation as a carcinogen is the determination of its cancerogenic effectiveness in the extremely low to moderate dosage range. Because radiation can be easily delivered in precisely measured quantities and because it is a fairly potent carcinogen, it has also been widely used as an experimental tool in cancer research.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albert, R. E., and Omran, A. R., 1968, Follow-up study of patients treated by X-ray epilation for tinea capitis. 1. Population characteristics, post-treatment illnesses, and mortality experience, Arch. Environ. Health 17: 899.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bair, W. J., 1970, Inhalation of radionuclides and carcinogenesis, in: Inhalation Carcinogenesis (P. Nettesheim, M. G. Hanna, Jr., and J. R. Gilbert, eds.), pp. 77–97, Usaec Division of Technical Information, Symposium Series 18, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., Conf-691001.Google Scholar
  3. Beebe, G. W., Kato, H., and Land, C. E., 1971, Studies on the mortality of A-bomb survivors. 4. Mortality and radiation dose, 1950–1966, Radiation Res. 48: 613.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Belsky, J. L., Tachikawa, K., Cihak, R. W., and Yamomoto, T., 1972, Salivary gland tumors in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima-Nagasaki, 1957 to 1970, JAMA 219: 864.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berenblum, I., 1941, The mechanism of carcinogenesis: A study of the significance of carcinogenic action and related phenomena, Cancer Res. 1: 807.Google Scholar
  6. Berenblum, I., Chen, L., and Trainin, N., 1968, A quantitative study of the leukemogenic action of whole-body x-irradiation and urethane, Israel J. Med. Sci. 4: 1159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bloch, C., 1962, Osteogenic sarcoma: Report of a case and review of literature, Am. J. Roentgenol. 87: 1157.Google Scholar
  8. Braestrup, C. B., 1957, Past and present radiation exposure to radiologists from the point of view of life expectancy, Am. J. Roentgenol. 78: 988.Google Scholar
  9. Bross, I. D. J., and Natarajan, N., 1972, Leukemia from low level radiation, New Engl. J. Med. 287: 107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown, D. G., Johnson, D. F., and Cross, F. H., 1965, Late Effects observed in burros surviving external whole-body gamma irradiation, Radiation Res. 25: 574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Burns, F. J., Albert, R. E., and Heimbach, R. D., 1968, Rbe for skin tumors and hair follicle damage in the rat following irradiation with alpha particles and electrons, Radiation Res. 36: 225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cole, L. J., and Foley, W. A., 1969, Modification of urethan—lung tumor incidence by low x-radiation doses, cortisone and transfusion of isogenic lymphocytes, Radiation Res. 39: 391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Conrad, R. A., Dobyns, B. M., and Sutow, W. W., 1970, Thyroid neoplasia as late effect of exposure to radioactive iodine in fallout, JAMA 214: 316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Court Brown, W. M., and Doll, R., 1958, Expectation of life and mortality from cancer among British radiologists, Brit. Med. J. 2: 181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Court Brown, W. M., and Doll, R., 1965, Mortality from cancer and other causes after radiotherapy for ankylosing spondylitis, Brit. Med. J. 2: 1327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Court Brown, W. M., Doll, R., and Hill, A. B., 1960, Incidence of leukemia after exposure to diagnostic radiation in utero, Brit. Med. J. 2: 1539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Diamond, E. L., 1968, Unpublished studies. Cited by Kessler, I. I., and Lilienfeld, A. M., 1969, Perspectives in the epidemiology of leukemia, in: Advances in Cancer Research, Vol. 12 ( G. Klein and S. Weinhouse, eds.), pp. 225–302, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Doll, R., and Smith, P. G., 1968, The long-term effects of x irradiation in patients treated for metropathia haemorrhagica, Brit. J. Radiol. 41: 362.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dougherty, T. F., and Mays, C. W., 1969, Bone cancer induced by internally-deposited emitters in beagles, in: Radiation-Induced Cancer, pp. 361–367, Iaea, Vienna.Google Scholar
  20. Dublin, L. I., and Spiegelman, M., 1948, Mortality of medical specialists 1938–1942, JAMA 137: 1519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Epstein, J. H., 1972, Examination of the carcinogenic and cocarcinogenic effects of Grenz radiation, Cancer Res. 32: 2625.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Evans, R. D., Keane, A. T., Kolenkow, R. J., Neal, W. R., And Shanahan, M. M., 1969, Radiogenic tumors in the radium and mesothorium cases studied at M.I.T., in: Delayed Effects of Bone-Seeking Radionuclides ( C. W. Mays, W. S. S. Jee, R. D. Lloyd, B. J. Stover, J. H. Dougherty, and G. N. Taylor, eds.), pp. 157–194, University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.Google Scholar
  23. Evans, R. D., Keane, A. T., and Shanahan, M. M., 1972, Radiogenic effects in man of long-term skeletal alpha-irradiation, in: Radiobiology of Plutonium ( B. J. Stover and W. S. S. Jee, eds.), pp. 431–468, The J. W. Press, Salt Lake City.Google Scholar
  24. Finkel, M. P., and Biskis, B. O., 1962, Toxicity of plutonium in mice, Health Phys. 8: 565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Finkel, M. P., Biskis, B. O., and Jinkins, P. B., 1969, Toxicity of radium-226 in mice, in: Radiation-Induced Cancer, pp. 369–391, Iaea, Vienna.Google Scholar
  26. Furth, J., Upton, A. C., and Kimball, A. W., 1959, Late pathologic effects of atomic detonation and their pathogenesis, Radiation Res. Suppl. 1: 243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gibson, R. W., Bross, I. D. J., Graham, S., Lilienfeld, A. M., Schuman, L. M., Levin, M. L., and Dowd, J. E., 1968, Leukemia in children exposed to multiple risk factors, New Engl. J. Med. 279: 906.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Grahn, D., Fry, R. J. M., and Lea, R. A., 1972, Analysis of survival and cause of death statistics for mice under single and duration-of-life gamma irradiation, in: Life Sciences and Space Research, Vol. X ( A. C. Strickland, ed.), Akademie-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  29. Griem, M. D., Meier, P., and Dobben, G. D., 1967, Analysis of the morbidity and mortality of children irradiated in fetal life, Radiology 88: 347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Hazen, R. W., Pifer, J. W., Tayooka, T., Livengood, J., and Hempelmann, L. H., 1966, Neoplasms following irradiation of the head, Cancer Res. 26: 305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Hempelmann, L. H., Pifer, J. W., Burke, G. W., Terry, R., and Ames, W. R., 1967, Neoplasms in persons treated with X-rays in infancy for thymic enlârgement: A report of third follow-up survey, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 38: 317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Hoel, D. G., and Walburg, H. E. 1972, Statistical analysis of survival experiments, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 49: 361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Hug, O., Gossner, W., MÜLler, W. A., Luz, A., and Hindringer, B., 1969, Production of osteosarcomas in mice and rats by incorporation of radium-224, in: Radiation-Induced Cancer, pp. 393–409, Iaea, Vienna.Google Scholar
  34. Hulse, E. V., 1967, Incidence and pathogenesis of skin tumors in mice irradiated with single external (Roses of low energy beta particles, Brit. J. Cancer 21: 531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hutchison, G. B., 1968, Leukemia in patients with cancer of the cervix uteri treated with radiation: A report covering the first 5 years of an international study, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 40:951. International Commission on Radiological Protection, 1969, Publication 14: Radiosensitivity and Spatial Distribution of Dose, Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  36. Ishimaru, T., Hoshino, T., Ichimaru, M., Okada, H., Tomiyasu, T., Tsuchimoto, T., and Yamamoto, T., 1971, Leukemia in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1 October 1950–30 September 1966, Radiation Res. 45: 216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jablon, S., and Kato, H., 1970, Childhood cancer in relation to prenatal exposure to atomic-bomb radiation, Lancet 2: 1000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jablon, S., and Kato, H., 1972, Studies of the mortality of a-bomb survivors. 5. Radiation dose and mortality, 1950–1970, Radiation Res. 50: 649.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Johnson, M. L. T., Land, C. E., Gregory, P. B., Taura, T., and Milton, R. C., 1969, Effects of Ionizing Radiation on the Skin, Hiroshima-Nagasaki Abcc TR 20–69.Google Scholar
  40. Kaplan, H. S., 1948, Influence of age on susceptibility of mice to the development of lymphoid after irradiation, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 9: 55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Kaplan, H. S., 1958, An evaluation of the somatic and genetic hazards of the medical uses of radiation, Am. J. Roentgenol. 80: 696.Google Scholar
  42. Kellerer, A. M., and Rossi, H. H., 1972, The theory of dual radiation action, Curr. Topics Radiation Res. Quart. 8: 85.Google Scholar
  43. Lewis, T. L. T., 1960, Leukemia in childhood after antenatal exposure to X-rays, Brit. Med. J. 2: 1551.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lindop, P. J., and Rotblat, J., 1962, The age factor in the susceptibility of man and animals to radiation, I. The age factor in radiation sensitivity in mice, Brit. J. Radiol. 35: 23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lindop, P. J., and Rotblat, J., 1966, Induction of lung tumors by the action of radiation and urethane, Nature (Lond.) 210: 1392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lindsay, S., and Chaikoff, 1964, The effects of irradiation on the thyroid gland with particular reference to the induction of thyroid neoplasms: A review, Cancer Res. 24: 1099.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Lundin, F. E., JR., Wagoner, J. K., And Archer, V. E., 1971, Radon Daughter Exposure and respiratory Cancer: Quantitative and Temporal Aspects, Report from the epidemiological study of United States uranium miners, Niosh-Niehs Joint Monograph No. 1., U.S. Public Health Service, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., P.B. 204–871.Google Scholar
  48. Mackenzie, I., 1965, Breast cancer following multiple fluoroscopies, Brit. J. Cancer 19: 1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Macmahon, B., 1962, Prenatal x ray exposure and childhood cancer, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 28: 1173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Macmahon, B., and Hutchison, G. B., 1964, Prenatal x-ray and childhood cancer: A review, Acta Unio. Int. Contra Cancrum 20: 1172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Maldague, P., 1969, Comparative study of experimentally induced cancer of the kidney in mice and rats with x-rays, in: Radiation-Induced Cancer, pp. 439–458, Iaea, Vienna.Google Scholar
  52. Manning, M. D., and Carroll, B. E., 1957, Some epidemiological aspects of leukemia in children, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 19: 1087.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Mays, C. W., and Lloyd, R. D., 1972a, Bone sarcoma risk from 90Sr, in: Biomedical Implications of Radiostrontium Exposure (M. Goldman and L. K. Bustad, eds.), pp. 352–370, Usaec Division of Technical Information, Symposium Series 25, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., Conf-710201.Google Scholar
  54. Mays, C. W., and Lloyd, R. D., 1972 Bone sarcoma incidence vs. alpha particle dose, in: Radiobiology of Plutonium (B. J. Stover and W. S. S. Jee, eds.), pp. 409–430, The J. W. Press, Salt Lake City.Google Scholar
  55. Mettler, F. A., Hempelmann, L. H., Dutton, A. M., Pifer, J. W., Toyooka, E. T., and Ames, W. R., 1969, Breast neoplasms in women treated with X-rays for acute post-partum mastitis: A pilot study, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 43: 803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Myrden, J. A., and Hiltz, J. E., 1969, Breast cancer following multiple fluoroscopies during artificial pneumothorax treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, Canari. Med. Assoc. J. 100: 1032.Google Scholar
  57. National Academy OF Sciences-National Research Council, 1972, The Effects on Populations of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation, Report of the Advisory Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  58. Nilsson, A., 1970, Pathologic effects of different doses of radiostrontium in mice: Dose effect relationship in 90Sr-induced bone tumors, Acta Radiol. Ther. Phys. Biol. 9: 155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pifer, J. W., Hempelmann, L. H., Dodge, H. J., and Hodges, F. J., II, 1968, Neoplasms in the Ann Arbor series of thymus irradiated children; a second survey, Am. J. Roentgenol. Radium Ther. Nuclear Med. 103: 13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ruch, R., Duhamel, L., And Skaredoff, L., 1966, Relation of embryonic and fetal x irradiation to life time average weights and tumor incidence in mice, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 121: 714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Saenger, E. L., Silverman, F. N., Sterling, T. D., and Turner, M. E., 1960, Neoplasia following therapeutic irradiation for benign conditions in childhood, Radiology 74: 889.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Saenger, E. I., Silverman, F. N., Sterling, T. D., and Turner, M. E., 1960, Neoplasia following therapeutic irradiation for benign conditions in childhood, Radiology 74: 889.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Schulz, R. J., and Albert, R. E., 1968, Iii. Dose to organs of the head from the X-ray treatment of tinea capitis, Arch. Environ. Health 17: 935.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Segaloff, A., and Maxfield, W. S., 1971, The synergism between radiation and estrogen in the production of mammary cancer in the rat, Cancer Res. 31: 168.Google Scholar
  65. Seltser, R., and Sartwell, P. E., 1965, The influence of occupational exposure to radiation on the mortality of American radiologists and other medical specialists, Am. J. Epidemiol. 81: 2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Shellabarger, C. J., and Brown, R. D., 1972, Rat mammary neoplasia following 60Co irradiation at 0.03 R or 10 R per minute, Radiation Res. 51: 493.Google Scholar
  67. Shellabarger, C. J., and Straub, R., 1972, Effect of 3-methylcholanthrene and fission neutron irradiation, given singly or combined, on rat mammary carcinogenesis, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 48: 185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Shellabarger, C. J., Bond, V. P., Cronkite, E. P., And Aponte, G. E., 1969, Relationship of dose of total-body 60Co radiation to incidence of mammary neoplasia in female rats, in: Radiation-Induced Cancer, pp. 161–172, Iaea, Vienna.Google Scholar
  69. Shubik, P., Goldfarb, A. R., Ritchie, A. C., and Ltsco, H., 1953, Latent carcinogenic action of beta-irradiation on mouse epidermis, Nature (Lond.) 171: 934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Spiess, H., and Mays, C. W., 1970, Bone cancers induced by 224Ra(ThX) in children and adults, Health Phys. 19: 713.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Spiess, H., and Mays, C. W., 1971, Erratum, Health Phys. 20: 543.Google Scholar
  72. Steinitz, R., 1965, Pulmonary tuberculosis and carcinoma of the lung, Am. Rev. Resp. Dis. 92: 758.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Stewart, A., 1961, Aetiology of childhood malignancies, Brit. Med. J. 1: 452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Stewart, A., and Kneale, G. W., 1968, Changes in the cancer risk associated with obstetric radiography, Lancet 1: 104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Stewart, A., and Kneale, G. W., 1970, Radiation dose effects in relation to obstetric X-rays and childhood cancers, Lancet 1: 1185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Stewart, A., Webb, J., and Hewitt, D., 1958, A survey of childhood malignancies, Brit. Med. J. 1: 1495.Google Scholar
  77. Storer, J. B., 1973, Unpublished data.Google Scholar
  78. Telles, N. C., Ward, B. C., Willensky, E. A., and Jessup, G. L., 1969, Radiation—ethionine carcinogenesis, in: Radiation-Induced Cancer, pp. 233–245, Iaea, Vienna.Google Scholar
  79. United Nations, 1972, Ionizing Radiation: Levels and Effects, Vol. II: Effects, Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, United Nations, New York.Google Scholar
  80. Upton, A. C., 1964, Comparative aspects of carcinogenesis by ionizing radiation, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 14: 221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Upton, A. C., and Cosgrove, G. E., 1968, Radiation induced leukemia, in: Experimental Leukemia ( M. Rich, ed.), pp. 131–158, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.Google Scholar
  82. Upton, A. C., Odell, T. T., and Sniffen, E. P., 1960, Influence of age at time of irradiation on induction of leukemia and ovarian tumors in RF mice, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 104: 769.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Upton, A. C., Wolff, F. F., and Sniffen, E. P., 1961, Leukemogenic effect of myleran on the mouse thymus, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 108: 464.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Upton, A. C., Jenkins, V. K., and Conklin, J. W., 1964, Myeloid leukemia in the mouse, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 114 (1): 189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Upton, A. C., Conklin, J. W., and Popp, R. A., 1966, Influence of age at irradiation on susceptibility to radiation-induced life-shortening in RF mice, in: Radiation and Ageing (P. J. Lindop and G. A. Sacher, eds.), pp. 337–344, Taylor and Francis, London.Google Scholar
  86. Upton, A. C., Randolph, M. L., and Conklin, J. W., 1970, Late effects of fast neutrons and gamma-rays in mice as influenced by the dose rate of irradiation: Induction of neoplasia, Radiation Res. 41: 467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Walburg, H. E, and Cosgrove, G. E., 1970, Life shortening and cause of death in irradiated germ free mice, in: Proceedings of the First European Symposium on Late Effects of Radiation ( P. Metalli, ed.), pp. 51–67, Comitato Nazionale Energia Nucleare, Roma.Google Scholar
  88. Wanebo, C. K., Johnson, K. G., Sato, K., and Thorslund, T. W., 1968a, Breast cancer after exposure to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, New Engl. J. Med. 279: 667.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wanebo, C. K., Johnson, K. G., Sato, K., and Thorslund, T. W., 1968b, Lung cancer following atomic radiation, Am. Rev. Resp. Dis. 98: 778.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Warren, S., 1956, Longevity and causes of death from irradiation in physicians, JAMA 162: 464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Warren, S., and Gates, O., 1969, Effects of continuous irradiation of mice from conception to weaning, in: Radiation Biology of the Fetal and Juvenile Mammal (M. R. Sikov and D. D. Mahlum, eds.), pp. 419–437, Usaec Technical Information Division, Symposium Series 17, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., Conf-690501.Google Scholar
  92. Wood, J. W., Tamagaki, H., Neriiski, S., Sato, T., Sheldon, W. F., Archer, P. G., Hamilton, H. B., and Johnson, K. G., 1969, Thyroid carcinoma in atomic bomb survivors Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Am. J. Epidemiol. 89: 4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Yamamoto, T., and Wakabayaski, T., 1968, Bone Tumors Among the Atomic Bomb Survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Abcc TR 26–68.Google Scholar
  94. Yamamoto, T., Kato, H., Ishida, K., Tahara, E., and Mcgregor, D. H., 1970, Gastric carcinoma in fixed population, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Gann 61: 473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Yuhas, J. M., 1973, Personal communicationGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • John B. Storer
    • 1
  1. 1.Biology DivisionOak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA

Personalised recommendations