Advertisement

Potential Limitation to Hydrogen Atom Donation as a Mechanism of Repair in Chemical Models of Radiation Damage

  • J. A. Raleigh
  • A. F. Fuciarelli
  • C. R. Kulatunga

Abstract

Ionizing radiation can be lethal to mammalian cells. For those cells which are irradiated and survive, irradiation can also be mutagenic or, in the case of cells in animal tissues, carcinogenic. The biological effects of ionizing radiation are generally believed to originate in free radical reactions. In particular, a radical competition model has been proposed to account for the “oxygen effect” on radiation lethality — the so-called “oxygen fixation” hypothesis (Figure 1) (1–5).

Keywords

Chiral Centre Peroxy Radical Oxygen Effect Hydrogen Atom Abstraction Sugar Phosphate Backbone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    P. Alexander and A. Charlesby, Physico-chemical methods of protection against ionizing radiations. In Radiobiology Symposium 1954 (Z.M. Bacq and P. Alexander, Eds.) pp. 49–59. Butterworth, London.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    P. Howard-Flanders and T. Alper, The sensitivity of microorganisms to irradiation under controlled gas conditions. Radiat. Res. 518–540 (1957).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    P. Howard-Flanders, The effect of oxygen on the radiosensitivity of bacteriophage in the presence of sulphydryl compounds. Nature (London) 186, 485–487 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    F. Hutchison, Sulfhydryl groups and the oxygen effect on irradiated dilute solutions of enzymes and nucleic acids. Radiat. Res. 14, 721–731 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    For recent review see numerous contributors in “Radioprotectors and Anticarcinogens”, 1983 (O.F. Nygaard and M.G. Simic, Eds.). Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    B.D. Michael, K.D. Held and H.A. Harrop, Biological aspects of DNA radioprotection. In Radioprotectors and Anticarcinogens, 1983 (O.F. Nygaard and M.G. Simic, Eds.) pp. 325–338. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    T. Sanner and A. Pihl, Significance and mechanism of the indirect effect in bacterial cells. The relative protective effect of added compounds in Escherichia coli B irradiated in liquid and in frozen suspension. Radiat. Res. 37, 216–222 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. Roots and S. Okada, Protection of DNA molecules of cultured mammalian cells from radiation-induced single-strand scissions by various alcohols and SH compounds. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 21, 329–342 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J.D. Chapman, A.P. Reuvers, J. Borsa and C.L. Greenstock, Chemical radioprotection and radiosensitization of mammalian cells growing in vitro. Radiat. Res. 56, 291–306 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    G.E. Adams, Molecular mechanisms of cellular radiosensitization and protection. In Radiation Protection and Sensitization, 1970 (H.L. Moroson and M. Quintiliani, Eds.) pp. 3–14. Taylor and Francis, London.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    R.L. Willson and P.T. Emmerson, Reaction of triacetoneamine-N-oxyl with radiation-induced radicals from DNA and from deoxyribonucleotides in aqueous solution. In Radiaiton Protection and Sensitization, 1970 (H.L. Moroson and M. Quintiliani, Eds.) pp. 73–79. Taylor and Francis, London.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. Holian and W.M. Garrison, Reconstitution mechanisms in the radiolysis of aqueous biochemical systems: inhibitive effects of thiols. Nature (London) 221, 57 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    M.G. Simic and S.V. Jovanovic, Free radical mechanisms of DNA base damage. In Mechanisms of DNA Damage and Repair, 1986 (M.G. Simic, L. Grossman and A.C. Upton, Eds.) pp. 39–49. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    P. O’Neill, Pulse radiolytic study of the interaction of thiols and ascorbate with OH adducts of dGMP and dG: implications for DNA repair processes. Radiat. Res. 96, 198–210 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    C. von Sonntag, U. Hagen, A. Schon-Bopp and D. Schulte-Frohlinde, Radiation-induced strand breaks in DNA: chemical and enzymatic analysis of end groups and mechanistic aspects. Adv. Radiat. Biol. 9, 109–142 (1981).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. Cadet, M. Berger and A. Shaw, The radiation chemistry of the purine bases within DM and related model compounds. In Mechanisms of DNA Damage and Repair, 1986 (M.G. Simic, L. Grossman and A.C. Upton, Eds.) pp. 69–74. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    N.K. Kochetkov, L.I. Kudrjashov, M.A. Chlenov and T. Ya. Livertovskaya, The epimerization of monosaccharides by γ-irradiation in frozen and aqueous solutions. Carbohydr. Res. 28, 86–88 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    V. Gold and M.E. McAdam, Radiation-induced organic hydrogen isotope exchange reactions in aqueous solution. Acc. Chem. Res. 11, 36–43 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    A.J. Alexander, A.F. Fuciarelli, P. Kebarle and J.A. Raleigh, Characterization of radiation-induced damage to polyadenylic acid using high-performance liquid chromatography — tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS). Anal. Chem., 1987 (Submitted).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    K.B. Lesiak and K.T. Wheeler, Radiation damage to deoxyadenosine in solutions of double stranded poly (dA.T). Abstract (Ei-2) Radiation Research Society Thirty-Fifth Annual Meeting, Atlanta, Georgia, February 21–26, 1987.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    F.S. Dainton and D.B. Peterson, Forms of H and OH produced in the radiolysis of aqueous systems. Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A. 267, 443–463 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    J.A. Raleigh and F.Y. Shum, Radioprotection in model lipid membranes by hydroxyl radical scavengers: supplemental role for α-tocopherol in scavenging secondary peroxy radicals. In Radioprotectors and Anticarcinogens, 1983 (O.F. Nygaard and M.G. Simic, Eds.) pp. 87–102. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    D. Schulte-Frohlinde and E. Bothe, Identification of a major pathway of strand break formation in poly U induced by OH radicals in the presence of oxygen. Z. Naturforsch. Teil. C 39: 315–319, 1984.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    A.F. Fuciarelli, G.G. Miller and J.A. Raleigh, An immunochemical probe for 8,5’-cyclodeoxyadenosine-5’-monophosphate and its deoxy analog in irradiated nucleic acids. Radiat. Res. 104, 272–283 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    For recent review see, N.L. Oleinick, S-M. Chiu, L.R. Friedman, L-Y. Xue and N. Ramakrishnan, DNA-protein cross-links: new insights in their formation and repair in irradiated mammalian cells. In Mechanisms of DNA Damage and Repair, 1986 (M.G. Simic, L. Grossman and A.C. Upton, Eds.) pp. 181–192. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. A. Raleigh
    • 1
  • A. F. Fuciarelli
    • 1
  • C. R. Kulatunga
    • 1
  1. 1.RadiobiologyCross Cancer InstituteEdmontonCanada

Personalised recommendations