Other Metals: Aluminum, Copper, Manganese, Selenium, Vanadium, and Zinc

  • Mitchell D. Cohen


While aluminum (Al) is one of the most abundant elements encountered in the environment, and some daily exposure is unavoidable, inhalation of Al by the general population is generally considered to be negligible (i.e., 0.14 mg aluminum dust/d [Jones and Bennett, 1986]). Conversely, smelters, miners, and other workers involved in various metal industries are often acutely exposed, accidentally or intentionally, to much higher levels of ambient Al. For example, one study has indicated that aluminum welders were often exposed to localized atmospheres containing 2.4 mg Al/m3, resulting in time-weighted-average intakes of>23 mg A118 hr shift (Sjogren et al., 1985). In addition, because of its demonstrable role as a prophylactic agent against silicotic lung diseases (Denny et al., 1939; Le Bouffant et al., 1977; Begin et al., 1986, 1987; Brown et al., 1989), many miners were intentionally exposed to airborne mixtures of finely-ground aluminum powder containing ≈15% elemental Al and 85% aluminum oxide (alumina; Al2O3) prior to their entering the mineshafts (reviewed in Rifat et al., 1990). Although there is no information describing acute or chronic effects upon human pulmonary health from environmental exposure to airborne Al, there are numerous reports which have described increases in pneumonia, bronchitis, asthma, hard metal pneumoconiosis, lung cancers, and/or pulmonary fibrosis in occupationally-exposed subjects (Gibbs, 1985; Abramson et al., 1989; Chan-Yeung et aI., 1989; Larsson et al., 1989; Schwarz et al., 1994; Soyseth et al., 1995; Kilburn, 1998; Sorgdrager et al., 1998).


Alveolar Macrophage Occupational Asthma Ammonium Metavanadate Host Mortality Selenious Acid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mitchell D. Cohen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental MedicineNew York University School of MedicineTuxedoUSA

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