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Interference with Virus and Bacteria Replication by the Tissue Specific Expression of Antibodies and Interfering Molecules

  • L. Enjuanes
  • I. Sola
  • A. Izeta
  • J. M. Sánchez-Morgado
  • J. M. González
  • S. Alonso
  • D. Escors
  • C. M. Sánchez
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 473)

Summary

Historically, protection against virus infections has relied on the use of vaccines, but the induction of an immune response requires several days and in certain situations, like in newborn animals that may be infected at birth and die in a few days, there is not sufficient time to elicit a protective immune response. Immediate protection in new born could be provided either by vectors that express virus-interfering molecules in a tissue specific form, or by the production of animals expressing resistance to virus replication. The mucosal surface is the largest body surface susceptible to virus infection that can serve for virus entry. Then, it is of high interest to develop strategies to prevent infections of these areas. Virus growth can be interfered intracellularly, extracellularly or both. The antibodies neutralize virus intra- and extracellularly and their molecular biology is well known. In addition, antibodies efficiently neutralize viruses in the mucosal areas. The autonomy of antibody molecules in virus neutralization makes them functional in cells different from those that produce the antibodies and in the extracellular medium. These properties have identified antibodies as very useful molecules to be expressed by vectors or in transgenic animals to provide resistance to virus infection. A similar role could be played by antimicrobial peptides in the case of bacteria. Intracellular interference with virus growth (intracellular immunity) can be mediated by molecules of very different nature: (i) full length or single chain antibodies; (ii) mutant viral proteins that strongly interfere with the replication of the wild type virus (dominant-negative mutants); (iii) antisense RNA and ribozyme sequences; and (iv) the product of antiviral genes such as the Mx proteins. All these molecules inhibiting virus replication may be used to obtain transgenic animals with resistance to viral infection built in their genomes.

Keywords

Transgenic Mouse Antimicrobial Peptide Long Terminal Repeat Transgenic Animal Matrix Attachment Region 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Enjuanes
    • 1
  • I. Sola
    • 1
  • A. Izeta
    • 1
  • J. M. Sánchez-Morgado
    • 1
  • J. M. González
    • 1
  • S. Alonso
    • 1
  • D. Escors
    • 1
  • C. M. Sánchez
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Molecular and Cell Biology CNB,CSICCampus Universidad Autonoma CantoblancoMadridSpain

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