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Picornavirus Variation

  • Esteban Domingo
  • Cristina Escarmís
  • Encarnación Martínez-Salas
  • Ana M. Martín Hernández
  • Mauricio G. Mateu
  • Miguel A. Martínez
Chapter
  • 66 Downloads
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 240)

Abstract

Variation of viruses has multiple theoretical and practical implications. Because mutations are stochastic events, the extensive variability of RNA viruses and retroviruses has manifested, perhaps more than ever before, the indetermination and unpredictability that may be inherent to biological phenomena. RNA virus populations do not have a precisely defined genome, but consist of indeterminate mixtures of related genomes termed viral quasispecies (Fig. 1), an application to viruses of a theoretical concept first proposed by M. Eigen and colleagues to describe replicons in early life on earth (Eigen and Schuster, 1979; Eigen and Biebricher, 1988; Domingo et al., 1993). Initially, the quasispecies concept was ignored by many virologists as being purely “theoretical”. However, as pointed out by Holland and colleagues (1992) in a recent volume which summarizes the state of the art in virus variation: “Quasispecies populations are not hypothetical abstractions. They exist in animals and humans infected by RNA viruses such as vesicular stomatitis virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, poliovirus, human immunodeficiency virus, influenza viruses, etc.”. Obviously, if comparative nucleotide sequencing of genomes from one population is restricted to a few hundred nucleotides several “identical genomes” may be found for simple statistical reasons (Fig. 1). The mutual influence between theoretical studies on quasispecies and experimental molecular virology has been determinant in providing the basis of what has been termed “RNA genetics”, a number of distinctive features associated with the error-prone replication of RNA genomes (Holland et al., 1982, 1992). Here we review evidence that picornaviruses are generally variable and that their populations are best described as quasispecies. The basic principles that influence Picornavirus variability and evolution do not differ in any substantial way from the principles guiding variation of other RNA viruses and retroviruses. In spite of the extensive heterogeneity of the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) within and between infected individuals, a comparison of the studies carried out with HIV-1 with those for other RNA viruses (including picornaviruses) led Temin (1989) to conclude that HIV” is not unique but merely different”. We hope to persuade virologists that in addition to having important “theoretical” impact, quasispecies and Picornavirus variation are intimately linked to “practical” problems, notably the control of picornaviral disease.

Keywords

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Persistent Infection Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Internal Ribosome Entry Site Oral Poliovirus Vaccine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Esteban Domingo
    • 1
  • Cristina Escarmís
    • 1
  • Encarnación Martínez-Salas
    • 1
  • Ana M. Martín Hernández
    • 1
  • Mauricio G. Mateu
    • 1
  • Miguel A. Martínez
    • 1
  1. 1.Centro de Biología Molecular “Severo Ochoa” (CSIC — UAM)Universidad Autónoma de MadridMadridSpain

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