Growth of Bulk Silicon Carbide Single Crystals

  • Yu. M. Tairov
  • V. F. Tsvetkov
Part of the Growth of Crystals book series (GROC, volume 19)


The year 1990 marked the 35th anniversary of the publishing of the work of Lely [1] in which the growth of semiconducting silicon carbide single crystals by spontaneous crystallization from the vapor at 2550–2600 ¼ was reported. During these years, numerous attempts have been made to perfect the method by optimizing the thermal fields in the growth zone and controlling crystal nucleation by adding perforated graphite crystallization inserts and seed crystals to the growth zone (see a previous review [2]). Nevertheless, the principal drawbacks of this method have not been overcome. These include the high temperatures, the poor control of the nucleation, the small crystal sizes, the inability to control their shape (faceted plates grow), the inability to control production of various polytypes, and the uneven doping and dislocation distribution in the crystals grown. Therefore, alternative methods for growing silicon carbide crystals have been under development. A thermodynamic analysis of the growth of SiC single crystals from the melt demonstrated that the SiC melt itself can exist at temperatures greater than 3460 K and pressures greater than 104 MPa. This has not yet enabled the well-developed methods for growing crystals from their own melts to be used to prepare bulk SiC single crystals. Our investigations have revealed a low efficiency of the processes for growing bulk SiC single crystals from fluxes, a serious problem with the choice of crucible materials for holding the reaction melts, a substantial entrainment of solvent by the growing crystal, etc.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    J. A. Lely, “Preparation of single crystals of SiC and the effect of kind and amount of impurities on the lattice,” Ber. Dtsch. Ker. Ges., 32, 229–234 (1955).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yu. M. Tairov and V. F. Tsvetkov, “Current state and prospects of preparing SiC single crystals and epitaxial layers,” in: Problems of the Physics and Technology of Wide-Band Semiconductors [in Russian], Leningr. Inst. Nucl. Phys., Leningrad (1980), pp. 122–135.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yu. M. Tairov, V. I. Levin, M. G. Travadzhyan, et al., “Study of the growth of single-crystalline ingots of SiC from the vapor,” Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Neorg. Mater., 14, No. 6, 1062–1066 (1978).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. A. Powell and L. G. Matus, “Recent developments in SiC,” Springer Proc. Phys., 34, 2–12 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    P. A. Glasow, “6H-SiC studies and developments at the corporate research laboratory of Siemens AG and the Institute for Applied Physics of the University of Erlangen,” Springer Proc. Phys., 34, 13–33 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    T. Nakata, K. Koga, Y. Matsushita, et al, “Single crystal growth of SiC by a vacuum sublimation method and blue LEDs,” Springer Proc. Phys., 43, 26–34 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    F. Raikhel’, Yu. M. Tairov, and V. F. Tsvetkov, “Mechanical activation of growth processes of SiC crystals,” Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Neorg. Mater., 19, No. 1, 67–71 (1983).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    E. G. Avvakumov, Mechanical Methods of Activating Chemical Processes [in Russian], Nauka, Novosibirsk (1979).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    V. A. Il’in, V. I. Kolynina, Yu. M. Tairov, and V. F. Tsvetkov, “Mechanochemical activation and size effect during dissociative sublimation of solids,” Zh. Prikl. Khim., No. 5, 1205–1208 (1987).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    E. I. Givargizov, Growth of Needlelike and Platelike Crystals from the Vapor [in Russian], Nauka, Moscow (1977).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. A. Chernov, E. I. Givargizov, Kh. S. Bagdasarov, et al., Modern Crystallography, Vol. 3 [in Russian], Nauka, Moscow (1980).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yu. M. Tairov and V. F. Tsvetkov, “Progress in controlling the growth of polytypic crystals,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact., 7, 111–162(1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    V. F. Tsvetkov, “Thermodynamic analysis of phase equilibria during dissociative sublimation of SiC polytypes,” Izv. Leningr. Élektrotekh. Inst.: Sb. Nauchn. Tr. Leningr.Élektrotekh. Inst. im. V. I. Ul’yanova (Lenina), No. 322, 39–46 (1983).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    E. G. Ivanov, Yu. M. Tairov, and V. F. Tsvetkov, “Characteristics of the growth of SiC crystals in a quasi-closed volume,” Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Neorg. Mater., 21, No. 4, 588–590 (1985).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. D. Hong and R. F. Davis, “Self-diffusion of C-14 in high purity and N-doped oc-SiC single crystals,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 63, 546–552 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    V. I. Levin, Yu. M. Tairov, and V. F. Tsvetkov, “Luminescence of SiC in relation to deviations from stoichiometry,” Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn., 14, 1194–1198 (1984).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    V. I. Levin, G. I. Pozdnyakova, Yu. M. Tairov, et al., “Inhomogeneities of SiC doping due to growth conditions of the individual crystals,” Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Neorg. Mater., 13, No. 2, 254–257 (1977).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    E. N. Mokhov, M. M. Usmanova, G. F. Yuldashev, and B. S. Makhmudov, “Doping of SiC by Group IlIa elements during crystal growth from the vapor,” Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Neorg. Mater., 20, No. 8, 1383–1386 (1984).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yu. A. Vodakov, G. M. Lomakina, and E. N. Mokhov, “Efficiency of different luminescence bands in SiC and its relation to the preparation temperature of the samples and the state of intrinsic defects in them,” in: Wide-Band Semiconductors: Interscholastic Scientific Methods Collection, Far-East State University, Makhachkala (1988), pp. 23–33.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    B. I. Nikolin, Multilayered Structures and Polytypism in Metallic Alloys [in Russian], Naukova Dumka, Kiev (1984).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York  1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yu. M. Tairov
  • V. F. Tsvetkov

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations