Growth Surface as a Vacancy Generator in Vacuum Condensation

  • V. M. Kosevich
  • M. V. Karpovskii
  • S. M. Kosmachev
  • V. N. Klimenko
Part of the Growth of Crystals book series (GROC, volume 19)


Various interfaces, including the free surface, have a considerable influence on mass-transfer processes in crystals. The role of the interface is most clearly evident during diffusional mass transfer occurring with the help of directional vacancy fluxes. In this instance, the transfer kinetics are determined by the presence and vigor of vacancy sources and sinks. It is known that structural defects of the crystals and mainly kinks in the surface steps are preferred sites of vacancy nucleation and disappearance. Intentional activation of a crystal surface can activate it as a vacancy source or sink, for example, during dissolution that creates an abundance of kinks [1, 2]. It can also passivate it, as during oxidation that contaminates kinks and blocks the surface [3]. With respect to vacancy fluxes, the principal reasons they arise in one-component systems are a potential gradient leading to vacancy creep and defects in the crystalline structure that can propagate by diffusion. In multicomponent systems, vacancy fluxes arise during diffusion if the partial diffusion coefficients are different. Diffusional vacancy fluxes lead to Frenkel effects such as the development of porosity and the Kirkendall effect, crystal-lattice flow, and rearrangement of the surface relief [4]. It is important that the direction of the vacancy fluxes can change owing to various external influences on the crystal that change, for example, its defect structure [5, 6].


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© Springer Science+Business Media New York  1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. M. Kosevich
  • M. V. Karpovskii
  • S. M. Kosmachev
  • V. N. Klimenko

There are no affiliations available

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