Pathogenesis and Differential Diagnosis of Fever and Approach to the Febrile Patient in the Intensive Care Unit

  • Bekele Afessa
  • G. Umberto Meduri


Normal body temperature is considered to be 37°C or 98.6°F. This temperature varies by 0.5–1.0°C in healthy individuals, depending on the circadian rhythm and menstrual cycle [1]. With heavy exercise, body temperature can rise 2–3°C [2]. Temperature is usually measured orally, rectally, or in the axilla. Electronic probes are used to measure tympanic membrane temperature. In critically ill patient, the thermistor of a pulmonary artery catheter is used as the gold standard device for measuring temperature [3]. Thermistors in indwelling bladder catheters provide temperature readings that are identical to those provided by thermistors in pulmonary artery catheters [3].


Acute Pancreatitis Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis Febrile Patient Intraabdominal Abscess Intraabdominal Infection 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bekele Afessa
  • G. Umberto Meduri

There are no affiliations available

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