Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Model M4

  • Peter A. NetlandEmail author


Glaucoma drainage devices are helpful in the management of intractable glaucoma, which does not respond well to conventional medical and surgical therapies. Surgeons also may choose to use glaucoma drainage devices for primary surgery for glaucoma. The Ahmed Glaucoma Valve is a glaucoma drainage device that has a flow-resistive valve mechanism. This valve is helpful in minimizing postoperative hypotony and complications associated with hypotony, including flat anterior chamber, choroidal effusions, and suprachoroidal hemorrhage.


Plate Material Silicone Plate Neovascular Glaucoma Porous Polyethylene Ahmed Glaucoma Valve 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Financial Disclosure

The University of Virginia has received research support from New World Medical for a multicenter randomized clinical trial.

Supplementary material

Video 20.1

Implantation of the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Model M4. This video demonstrates the steps for implantation of the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve M4 (WMV 110218 kb)


  1. 1.
    Boyle IV JW, Netland PA. Ahmed glaucoma valve drainage implant. In: Shaarawy TM, Sherwood MB, Hitchings RA, Crowston JG, editors. Glaucoma, Surgical management, vol. 2. 1st ed. Edinburgh: Saunders Elsevier; 2009. p. 425–35.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Coleman AL, Hill R, Wilson MR, Choplin N, Kotas-Neumann R, Tam M, Bacharach J, Panek WC. Initial clinical experience with the Ahmed glaucoma valve implant. Am J Ophthalmol. 1995;120:23–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Huang MC, Netland PA, Coleman AL, Siegner SW, Moster MR, Hill RA. Intermediate-term clinical experience with the Ahmed glaucoma valve implant. Am J Ophthalmol. 1999;127:27–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ayyala RS, Zurakowski D, Smith JA, Monshizadeh R, Netland PA, Richards DW, Layden WE. A clinical study of the Ahmed glaucoma valve implant in advanced glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 1998;105:1968–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Heuer DK, Lloyd MA, Abrams DA, Baerveldt G, Minckler DS, Lee MB, Martone JF. Which is better? One or two? A randomized clinical trial of single-plate versus double-plate Molteno implantation for glaucomas in aphakia and pseudophakia. Ophthalmology. 1992;99:1512–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Broadway DC, Iester M, Schulzer M, Douglas GR. Survival analysis for success of Molteno tube implants. Br J Ophthalmol. 2001;85:689–95.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Smith MF, Doyle JW, Sherwood MB. Comparison of the Baerveldt glaucoma implant with the double-plate Molteno drainage implant. Arch Ophthalmol. 1995;113:444–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Siegner SW, Netland PA, Urban Jr RC, Williams AS, Richards DW, Latina MA, Brandt JD. Clinical experience with the Baerveldt glaucoma drainage implant. Ophthalmology. 1995;102:1298–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Britt MT, LaBree LD, Lloyd MA, et al. Randomized clinical trial of the 350-mm2 versus the 500-mm2 Baerveldt implant: longer term results. Is bigger better? Ophthalmology. 1999;106:2312–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Al-Aswad LA, Netland PA, Bellows AR, et al. Clinical experience with the double-plate Ahmed glaucoma valve. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006;141:390–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Costa VP, Azuara-Blanco A, Netland PA, Lesk MR, Arcieri ES. Efficacy and safety of adjunctive mitomycin C during Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation. A prospective randomized clinical trial. Ophthalmology. 2004;111:1071–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ayyala RS, Harman LE, Michelini-Norris B, Ondrovic LE, Haller E, Margo CE, Stevens SX. Comparison of different biomaterials for glaucoma drainage devices. Arch Ophthalmol. 1999;117:233–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ayyala RS, Michelini-Norris B, Flores A, Haller E, Margo CE. Comparison of different biomaterials for glaucoma drainage devices: part 2. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000;118:1081–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ishida K, Netland PA, Costa VP, Shiroma L, Khan B, Ahmed II. Comparison of polypropylene and silicone Ahmed glaucoma valves. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:1320–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hinkle DM, Zurakowski D, Ayyala RS. A comparison of the polypropylene plate Ahmed glaucoma valve to the silicone plate Ahmed glaucoma flexible valve. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2007;17:696–701.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mackenzie PJ, Schertzer RM, Isbister CM. Comparison of silicone and polypropylene Ahmed glaucoma valves: two-year follow-up. Can J Ophthalmol. 2007;42:227–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Law SK, Nguyen A, Coleman AL, Caprioli J. Comparison of safety and efficacy between silicone and polypropylene Ahmed glaucoma valves in refractory glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 2005;112:1514–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Brasil MV, Rockwood EJ, Smith SD. Comparison of silicone and polypropylene Ahmed glaucoma valve implants. J Glaucoma. 2007;16:36–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Netland PA. The Ahmed glaucoma valve in neovascular glaucoma. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2009;107:325–42.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wellisz T. Clinical experience with the Medpor porous polyethylene implant. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 1993;17:339–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Katwitter JJ, Bagwell JG, Weinstein AM, et al. An evaluation of bone growth into porous high density polyethylene. J Biomed Mater Res. 1976;10:311–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Spector M, Harmon SL, Kreutner A. Characteristics of tissue growth into Proplast and porous polyethylene implants in bone. J Biomed Mater Res. 1979;13:677–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    DeCroos FC, Ahmad S, Kondo Y, et al. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membrane alters tissue response to implanted Ahmed glaucoma valve. Curr Eye Res. 2009;34:562–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    DeCroos FC, Kondo Y, Mordes D, et al. In vitro fluid dynamics of the Ahmed glaucoma valve modified with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene. Curr Eye Res. 2011;36:112–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kim J, Allingham RR, Hall J, et al. Clinical experience with a novel glaucoma drainage implant. J Glaucoma. 2013. Epub ahead of print.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyUniversity of Virginia School of MedicineCharlottesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations