On February 22, a week after Ferdinand Marcos declared his victory in heavily rigged presidential elections, Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile and Lt. General Fidel Ramos announced their resignations in support of a planned coup to replace the Philippine president with a military government (Boudreau 2004, p. 184). Pursued by Marcos’ security forces, the two officers fled to the Constabulary Headquarters alongside strategic Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA) cutting across downtown Manila. With assistance from Archbishop Jaime Cardinal Sin and an appeal sent out on the Catholic Church’s Radio Veritas, as well as the organized efforts of the political opposition campaign of Corazon Aquino, as many as two million anti-regime protestors filled EDSA to support the defecting generals and call for Marcos’ removal from office (Overholt 1986, pp. 1137–1163; Boudreau 2004, pp. 184–185). To break up the protest, Marcos unleashed troops armed with tanks, mortars, and helicopters. After a number of military detachments refused to fire on the crowds or defected to the opposition, Marcos fled the country on an American helicopter on February 27 (Overholt 1986, pp. 1137–1163; Boudreau 2004, pp. 184–185). His flight brought a sudden end to his two-decade-long personalist authoritarian rule over the Philippines.