Advertisement

How to Get and Get Rid of Gonorrhea

  • Jennifer C. Smith
  • Tim Mailman
  • Noni E. MacDonaldEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 764)

Abstract

Gonorrhea remains as a significant public health concern with an estimated 88 million new cases per year globally. Gonorrhea is a disease of sexual networks and is most prevalent in youth, men who have sex with men, and the socioeconomically disadvantaged. Highly adaptive through years of co-evolution, gonorrhea has developed multiple ways of evading the human immune system. Although new molecular-based strategies have opened avenues for less invasive testing, education and accessibility issues persist. Novel strategies, including use of the internet and social media, are required to better target high risk groups for education, testing, and treatment. Increasing the availability of youth-friendly health services will also help foster earlier gonorrhea diagnosis and management. The inappropriate and overuse of antibiotics and propensity of gonococcus for mutation has led to growing microbe resistance. Treatment failures now include both oral and intravenous formulations of third generation cephalosporins; key front line recommended gonococcal treatment in many countries. With treatment options dwindling, the need for better preventative strategies has never been more important. This overview highlights some of the major aspects of gonococcal infection, including the epidemiology of the disease with an emphasis on sexual networks, new diagnostic techniques, treatment options in the face of evolving gonococcal resistance, and notes potential new preventative strategies.

Keywords

Transmitted Infection Sexual Network Nucleic Acid Amplification Test Gonococcal Infection Neisseria Species 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Anderson MT, Seifert HS (2011) Opportunity and means: horizontal gene transfer from the human host to a bacterial pathogen. mBio. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00005-11Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    MacDonald NE, Stanbrook MB, Flegel K, Hebert PC (2011) Gonorrhea: what goes around comes around. CMAJ. doi:10.1503/cmaj.111393. http://www.cmaj.ca/content/early/2011/09/19/cmaj.111393.longGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fisman D, Laupland KB (2011) Sexually transmitted infections in Canada: a sticky situation. Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 22(3):80–82PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sparling PF (2008) Biology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. In: Holmes K, Sparling P, Stamm W, Piot P, Wasserheit J, Corey L, Cohen M (eds) Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 4th edn. McGraw-Hill, China, p 607–626Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Virji M (2009) Pathogenic neisseriae: surface modulation, pathogenesis and infection control. Nat Rev Microbiol 7(4):274–286PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Edwards JL (2008) The role of complement in gonococcal infection of cervical epithelia. Vaccine 26(Suppl 8):156–161Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Steichen CT, Shao JQ, Ketterer MR, Apicella MA (2008) Gonococcal cervicitis: a role for biofilm in pathogenesis. J Infect Dis 198(12):1856–1861PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Goldenberg DL, Sexton DJ (2011) Disseminated gonococcal infection (Internet). Waltham, MA: UpToDate; 2011. http://www.uptodate.com/contents/disseminated-gonococcal-infection?source=see_link. Accessed 19 Sept 2011
  9. 9.
    Blom AM, Ram S (2008) Contribution of interactions between complement inhibitor C4b-binding protein and pathogens to their ability to establish infection with particularly emphasis on Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Vaccine 26(Suppl 8):149–155Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jarvis GA (1995) Recognition and control of neisserial infection by antibody and complement. Trends Microbiol 3(5):198–201PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Department of Reproductive Health and Research/World Health Organization (2011) Emergence of multi-drug resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae—Threat of global rise in untreatable sexually transmitted infections 2011. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2011/WHO_RHR_11.14_eng_OnlinePDF.pdf
  12. 12.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011) Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2009. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2010a http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats09/surv2009-Complete_OnlinePDF.pdf. Accessed 19 Sept 2011
  13. 13.
    Health Protection Agency (2011) Healthy Protection Report weekly report 2011. http://www.hpa.org.uk/hpr/archives/2011/hpr2411_OnlinePDF.pdf. Accessed 19 Sept 2011
  14. 14.
    Public Health Agency of Canada (2011) Reported cases of notifiable STI from January 1 to June 30, 2009 and January 1 to June 30, 2010 and corresponding annual rates for the years 2009 and 2010, 2010. http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/std-mts/stdcases-casmts/index-eng.php Accessed 19 Sept 2011
  15. 15.
    Catchpole MA (1996) The role of epidemiology and surveillance systems in the control of sexually transmitted diseases. Genitourin Med 72(5):321–329PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kent C (2007) STD Surveillance: Critical and Costly, but Do We Know if It Works? Sex Trans Dis 34(2):81–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tapsall J (2011) Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. WHO; 2001. http://www.who.int/drugresistance/Antimicrobial_resistance_in_Neisseria_gonorrhoeae_OnlinePDF.pdf. Accessed 19 Sept 2011
  18. 18.
    Paine TC, Fenton KA, Herring A, Turner A, Ison C, Martin A et al (2001) GRASP: a new national sentinel surveillance initiative for monitoring gonococcal antimicrobial resistance in England and Wales. Sex Transm Infect 77(6):398–401PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Delpech V, Marin IMC, Hughes G, Nichols T, James L, Ison CA, Gonococcal Resistance to Antibiotics Surveillance Program steering group (2009) Epidemiology and clinical presentation of gonorrhoea in England and Wales: findings from the Gonococcal Resistance to Antimicrobials Surveillance Programme 2001–2006. Sex Transm Infect 85(5):317–321PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dubois-Arber F, Jeannin A, Spencer B, Gervasoni JP, Graz B, Elford J et al (2010) Mapping HIV/STI behavioural surveillance in Europe. BMC Infect Dis 4(10):290–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tapsall JW, Ndowa F, Lewis DA, Unemo M (2009) Meeting the public health challenge of multidrug-and extensively drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 7(7):821–834PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Unemo M, Fasth O, Fredlung H, Limnios A, Tapsall J (2009) Phenotypic and genetic characterization of the 2008 WHO Neisseria gonorrhoeae reference strain panel intended for global quality assurance and quality control of gonococcal antimicrobial resistance surveillance for public health purposes. J Antimicrob Chemother 63(6):1142–1151PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Barnes RC, Holmes KK (1984) Epidemiology of gonorrhea: current perspectives. Epidemiol Rev 6:1–30PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Alary M (1997) Gonorrhea: epidemiology and control strategies. Can J Hum Sex 6(2):151–159Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fenton KA, Lowndes CM (2004) Recent Trends in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections in the European Union. Sex Transm Infect 80(4):255–263PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Uuskula A. Puur A, Toompere K, DeHovitz J (2010) Trends in the epidemiology of bacterial sexually transmitted infections in eastern Europe. Sex Transm Infect 86(1):6–14PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    World Health Organization (2011) Global prevalence and incidence of selected curable sexually transmitted infections: overview and estimates. World Health Organization; 2001. http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/sti/who_hiv_aids_2001.02_OnlinePDF.pdf. Accessed 19 Sept 2011
  28. 28.
    Centralized Information System for Infectious Diseases (homepage on the Internet) (2011) Europe: World Health Organization. http://data.euro.who.int/cisid. Accessed 19 Sept 2011Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    May RM, Anderson RM (1987) Transmission dynamics of HIV infection. Nature 326(6):137–142PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Brooks GF (1985) Pathogenesis and immunology of gonococcal infection. In: Brooks GF, Donegan EA (eds) Gonococcal infection. Edward Arnold, London, p 51–82Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Holmes KK, Johnson DW, Trostle HJ (1970) An estimate of the risk of men acquiring gonorrhea by sexual contact with infected females. Am J Epidemiol 91(2):170–174PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hooper RR, Reynolds GH, Jones OG, Zaidi A, Wiesner PJ, Latimer KP et al (1978) Cohort study of venereal disease.1: the risk of gonorrhea transmission from infected women to men. Am J Epidemiol 108(2):136–144PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kigbu JH, Nyango DD (2009) A critical look on condoms. Niger J Med 18(4):354–359PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Steiner MJ, Cates W Jr (2006) Condoms and sexually-transmiited infections. N Engl J Med 354(25):2642–2643PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Warner L, Stone KM, Macaluso M, Buehler JW, Austin HD (2006) Condom use and risk of gonorrhea and Chlamydia: a systemic review of design and measurement factors assessed in epidemiologic studies. Sex Transm Dis 33(1):35–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bignell C, FitzGerald M (2011) UK National guideline for the management of gonorrhoea in adults. British Association for Sexual Health and HIV, 2011. http://www.bashh.org/documents/3611 Accessed 19 Sept 2011Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Brunham RC (1997) Core group theory: a central concept in STD epidemiology. Venereology 10:34–39Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Al-Tayyib AA, Rietmeijer CA (2011) Detecting Chlamydia and gonococcal infections through social and sexual networks. Sex Transm Infect. doi:10.1136/sextrans-2011-050102.59Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ford K, Sohn W, Lepkowski J (2002) American adolescents: sexual mixing patterns, bridge partners, and concurrency. Sex Transm Dis 29(1):13–19PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Berlan ED, Holland-Hall C (2010) Sexually transmitted infections in adolescents: advances in epidemiology, screening, and diagnosis. Adolesc Med State Art Rev 21(2):332–346PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Stoner BP, Whittington WL, Hughes JP, Aral SO, Homes KK (2000) Comparative epidemiology of heterosexual gonococcal and chlamydial networks: implications for transmission patterns. Sex Transm Dis 27(4):215–223PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    MacDonald NE, Wells GA, Fisher WA, Warren WK, King MA, Doherty JA et al (1990) High-risk STD/HIV behavior among college students. JAMA 263(23):3155–3159PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    MacDonald NE, Fisher WA, Wells GA, Doherty JA, Bowie WR (1994) Canadian street youth: correlates of sexually risk-taking activity. Pediatr Infect Dis J 13(8):690–697PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Shafti T, Burnstein GR (2004) An overview of sexually transmitted infections in adolescents. Adolesc Med Clin 15(2):201–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Robertson AA, Thomas CB, St Lawrence JS, Pack R (2005) Predictors of infection with chlamydia or gonorrhea in incarcerated adolescents. Sex Transm Dis 32(2):115–122PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Public Health Agency of Canada (2011) Street youth in Canada. Findings from enhanced surveillance of canadian street youth, 1999–2003 (Internet), March 2006. http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/std-mts/reports_06/youth-eng.php. Accessed 19 Sept 2011
  47. 47.
    Eaton DK, Kann L, Kinchen S, Shanklin S, Ross J, Hawkins J et al (2010) Youth risk behaviour surveillance-United States, 2009. MMWR Surveill Summ 59(5):1–142PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ford K, Lepkowski JM (2004) Characteristics of sexual partners and STD infection among American adolescents. Int J STD AIDS 15(4):260–265PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Forhan SE, Gottlieb SL, Sternberg MR, Xu F, Datta SD, McQuillan GM et al (2009) Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among female adolescents aged 14 to 19 in the United States. Pediatrics 124(6):1505–1512PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kahn JA, Rosenthal SL, Succop PA, Ho GYF, Burk RD (2002) Mediators of the association between age at first sexual intercourse and subsequent human papillomavirus infection. Pediatrics 109(1):5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kaestle CE, Halpern CT, Miller WC, Ford CA (2005) Young age at first sexual intercourse and sexually transmitted infections in adolescents and young adults. Am J Epidemiol 161(8):774–780PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Jayakody A, Sinha S, Tyler K, Khadr SN, Clark C, Klineberg E et al (2001) Early sexual risk among black and minority ethnicity teenagers: a mixed methods study. J Adolesc Health 48(5):499–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Tu W, Batteiger BE, Wiche S, Ofner S, Van Der Pol B, Katz BP et al (2009) Time from first intercourse to first sexually transmitted infection diagnosis among adolescent women. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 163(12):1106–1111PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kann L, Kichen SA, Williams BI, Ross JG, Lowry R, Grunbaum JA et al (2000) Youth risk behaviour surveillance-United States, 1999. MMWR CDC Surveill Summ 49(5):1–32PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hook EW, Handsfield HH (2008) Gonococcal Infections in the Adult. In: Holmes K, Sparling P, Stamm W, Piot P et al (eds) Sexually transmitted infections, 4th edn. McGraw-Hill, China, p 627–646Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Woods WR (2005) Gonococcal infections in neonates and young children. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 16(4):258–270PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Platt R, Rice PA, McCormack WM (1983) Risk of acquiring gonorrhea and prevalence of abnormal adnexal findings among women recently exposed to gonorrhea. JAMA 250(23):3205–3209PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Edwards LE, Barrada MT, Hamman AA, Hakanson EY (1978) Gonorrhea in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 132(6):637–641PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Woods CR, Jr (2009) Gonococcal infections. In: Feigin RD, Cherry JD, Demmler-Harrison GJ, Kaplan SL (eds) Feigin & Cherry’s textbook of pediatric infectious diseases, 6th edn. Elsevier, Philadelphia, p 1366–1393Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kinghorn G (2010) Pharyngeal gonorrhea: a silent cause for concern. Sex transm infect 86(6):413–414PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Barry PM, Klausner JD (2009) The use of cephalosporins for gonorrhea: the impending problem of resistance. Expert Opin Pharmacother 10(4):555–577PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kinghorn GR, Rashid S (1979) Prevalence of rectal and pharyngeal infection in women with gonorrhoea in Sheffield. Br J Vener Dis 55(6):408–410PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hunte T, Alcaide M, Castro J (2010) Rectal infections with chlamydia and gonorrhoea in women attending a multiethnic sexually transmitted diseases urban clinic. Int J STD AIDS 21(12):819–822PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Goldenberg, DL, Sexton DJ (2011) Disseminated gonococcal infection (Internet). Waltham, MA: UptoDate; 2011 (cited 2011 Sept 11). http://www.uptodate.com/contents/disseminated-gonococcal-infection
  65. 65.
    Pasquariello CA, Plotkin SA, Rice RJ, Hackney JR (1985) Fatal gonococcal septicemia. Pediatr Infect Dis 4(2):204–206PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Rice PA (2005) Gonococcal arthritis (disseminated gonococcal infection). Infect Dis Clin North Am 19(4):853–861PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    US Preventative Services Task Force (2005) Screening for Gonorrhea: Recommendation Statement. Ann Fam Med 3(3):263–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ross JDC (2010) Gonorrhoea: to screen or not screen? Sex Transm Infect 86(6):411–412PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Johnson RE, Newhall WJ, Papp JR, Knapp JS, Black CM, Gift TL et al (2002) Screening tests to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections—2002. MMWR Recomm Rep 51(RR-15):1–38PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Whiley DM, Tapsall JW, Sloots TP (2006) Nucleic acid amplification testing for Neisseria gonorrhoeae: an ongoing challenge. J Mol Diagn 8(1):3–15PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Bachmann LH, Johnson RE, Cheng H, Markowitz L, Papp JR, Palella FJ Jr et al (2010) Nucleic acid amplification tests for diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis rectal infections. J Clin Microbiol 48(5):1827–1832PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Fairley CK, Chen MY, Bradshaw CS, Tabrizi SN (2011) Is it time to move to nucleic acid amplification tests for pharyngeal and rectal gonorrhoea in men who have sex with men to improve gonorrhoea control? Sex Health 8(1):9–11PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2007) Update to CDC’s sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2006: fluoroquinolones no longer recommended for treatment of gonococcal infections. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 56(14):332–336Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Graseck AS, Shih SL, Peipert JF (2011) Home versus clinic-based specimen collection for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 9(2):183–194PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Howard EJ, Xu F, Taylor SN, Stoner BP, Mena L, Nsuami MJ et al (2011) Screening methods for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections in sexually transmitted infection clinics: what do patients prefer? Sex Transm Infect 87(2):149–151PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ison C (2006) GC NAATs: is the time right? Sex Transm Infect 82(6): 515PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Bachmann LH, Johnson RE, Cheng H, Markowitz LE, Papp JR, Hook EW 3rd (2009) Nucleic acid amplification tests for diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae oropharyngeal infections. J Clin Microbiol 47(4):902–907PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Razali MF, Fairley CK, Hocking J, Bradshaw CS, Chen MY (2010) Sampling technique and detection rates for pharyngeal gonorrhea using culture. Sex Transm Dis 37(8):522–524PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010) Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010. MMWR Recomm Rep 59(RR-12):1–110Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Bonilla H, Kepley R, Pawlak J, Belian B, Raynor A, Saravolatz LD (2011) Rapid diagnosis of septic arthritis using 16S rDNA PCR: a comparison of 3 methods. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 69(4):390–395PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Burstein GR, Murray PJ (2003) Diagnosis and management of sexually transmitted disease pathogens among adolescents. Pediatr Rev 24(3):75–82PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Dees JE, Colston JAC (1937) The Use of Sulfanilamide in Gonococcic Infections. JAMA 108:1855–1858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Herrell WE, Cook EN, Thomspon L (1943) Use of Penicillin in Sulfonamide-resistant Gonorrhea Infections. JAMA 122(5):289–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Whittington WL, Knapp JS (1988) Trends in resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to antimicrobial agents in the United States. Sex Transm Dis 15(4):202–210PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Reyn A, Korner B, Bentzon MW (1958) Effects of penicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline on N. gonorrhoeae isolated in 1944 and in 1957. Br J Vener Dis 34:227–239PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Phillips I (1976) Beta lactamase-producing, penicillin-resistant gonococcus. Lancet 2(7987): 656–657PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Scott GR, McMillan A, Young H (1987) Ciprofloxacin versus ampicillin and probenecid in the treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhoeae in men. J Antimicrob Chemother 20(1):177–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Dan M (2004) The use of fluoroquinolones in gonorrhoea: the increasing problem of resistance. Expert Opin Pharmacother 5(4):829–854PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Health Protection Agency (2011) Susceptibility testing of N. gonorrhoeae (Internet) 2009a. http://www.hpa.org.uk/web/HPAweb&HPAwebStandard/HPAweb_C/1195733778434. Accessed 19 Sept 2011
  90. 90.
    Health Protection Agency (2011) STIs Annual Slide Set 2000–2009 (Internet). 2009b. http://www.hpa.org.uk/Topics/InfectiousDiseases/InfectionsAZ/STIs/STIsAnnualDataTables/AnnualSTISlideset/. Accessed 19 Sept 2011Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011) Cephalosporin susceptibility among Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates—United States, 2000–2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 60(26):873–877Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012) Update to CDC’s sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010: oral cephalosporins no longer a recommended treatment for gonococcal infections. MMWR 61(31):590–594Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Chisholm SA, Mouton JW, Lewis DA, Nicols T, Ison CA, Livermore DM (2010) Cephalosporin MIC creep among gonococci: time for a pharmacodynamic rethink? J Antimicrob Chemother 65(10):2141–2148PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Cole MJ, Chisholm SA, Unemo M, Hoffmann S, van de Laar MJW, Ison CA (2011) European gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programme (Euro-GASP): towards timelier monitoring. Sex Transm Infect. doi:10.1136/sextrans-2011-050102.63Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Kirkcaldy RD, Ballard RC, Dowell D (2011) Gonococcal resistance: are cephalosporins next? Curr Infect Dis Rep 13(2):196–204PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Martin IM, Hoffmann S, Ison CA (2006) European surveillance of sexually transmitted infections (ESSTI): the first combined antimicrobial susceptibility data for Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Western Europe. J Antimicrob Chemother 58(3):587–593PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    WHO Western Pacific Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (2008) Surveillance of antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the WHO Western Pacific Region. Commun Dis Intell 32(1):48–51Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Wang SA, Lee MV, O’Connor N, Iverson CJ, Ohye RG, Whitican RM et al (2003) Multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae with decreased susceptibility to cefixime-Hawaii. Clin Infect Dis 37(6):849–852PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Tapsall JW (2009) Neisseria gonorrhoeae and emerging resistant to extended spectrum cephalosporins. Curr Opin Infect Dis 22(1):87–91PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Deguchi T, Yasuda M, Yokoi S, Ishida K, Ito M, Ishihara S et al (2003) Treatment of uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis by double-dosing of 200 mg cefixime at a 6 h interval. J Infect Chemother 9(1):35–39PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Ito M, Yasuda M, Yokoi S, Ito S, Takahashi Y, Ishihara S et al (2004) Remarkable increase in central Japan in 2001–2002 of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with decreased susceptibility to penicillin, tetracycline, oral cephalosporins, and fluoroquinolones. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48(8):3185–3187PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Tapsall J, Read P, Carmody C, Bourne C, Ray S, Limnios A et al (2009) Two cases of failed ceftriaxone treatment in pharyngeal gonorrhoeae verified by molecular microbiological methods. J Med Microbiol 58(Pt 5):683–687PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Unemo M, Golparian D, Hestner A (2011) Ceftriaxone treatment failure of pharyngeal gonorrhea verified by international recommendations, Sweden, July 2010. Euro Surveill 16(6): pii:19792. http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=19792PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Ohnishi M, Saika T, Hoshina S, Iwasaku K, Nakayama S, Watanabe H et al (2011) Ceftriaxone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis 17(1):148–149PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Newman LM, Moran JS, Workowski KA (2007) Update on the management of Gonorrhea in adults in the United States. Clin Infect Dis 44(Suppl 3):84–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Deguchi T, Nakane K, Yasuda M, Maeda S (2010) Emergence and spread of drug resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Urol 184(3):851–858PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Public Health Agency of Canada (2011) Canadian guidelines on sexually transmitted infections, 2008 Edition (Internet). Ottawa, ON: Public Health Agency of Canada; 2008. http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/std-mts/sti-its/guide-lignesdir-eng.php. Accessed 19 Sept 2011
  108. 108.
    Pichichero ME (2005) A review of evidence supporting the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation for prescribing cephalosporin antibiotics for penicillin-allergic patients. Pediatrics 115(4):1048–1057PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Bignell C, Garley J (2010) Azithromycin in the treatment of infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Sex Transm Infect 86(6):422–426PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Ison CA, Hussey J, Sankar KN, Evans J, Alexander S (2011) Gonorrhoea treatment failures to cefixime and azithromycin in England. Euro Surveill 16(14):pii: 19833. http://www.eurosurveillance.org/images/dynamic/EE/V16N14/art19833_OnlinePDF.pdf
  111. 111.
    Daly CC, Hoffman I, Hobbs M, Maida M, Zimba D, Davis R et al (1997) Development of an antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance system for Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Malawi: comparison of methods. J Clin Microbiol 35(11):2985–2989PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Ieven M, Van Looveren M, Sudigdoadi S, Rosana Y, Goossens W, Lammens C et al (2003) Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains isolated in Java, Indonesia. Sex Trans Dis 30(1):25–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Lkhamsuren E, Shultz TR, Limnios EA, Tapsall JW (2001) The antibiotic susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Sex Transm Infect 77(3):218–219PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Brown LB, Krysiak R, Kamanga G, Mapanie C, Kanyamula H, Banda B et al (2010) Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility in Lilongwe Malawi, 2007. Sex Transm Dis 37(3):169–172PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Vakulenko SB, Mobashery S (2003) Versatility of aminoglycosides and prospects for their future. Clin Microbiol Rev 16(3):430–450PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Jephcott AE (1997) Microbiological diagnosis of gonorrhoea. Genitourin Med 73(4):245–252PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Fung M, Scott KC, Kent CK, Klausner JD (2007) Chlamydial and gonococcal reinfection among men: a systematic review of data to evaluate the need for retesting. Sex Transm Infect 83(4):304–309PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Hosenfeld CB, Workowski KA, Berman S, Zaidi A, Dyson J, Mosure D et al (2009) Repeat infection with chlamydia and gonorrhea among females: a systematic review of the literature. Sex Transm Dis 36(8):478–489PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Kissinger PJ, Reilly K, Taylor SN, Leichliter JS, Rosenthal S, Martin DH (2009) Early repeat Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections among heterosexual men. Sex Transm Dis 36(8):498–500PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Peterman TA, Tian LH, Metcalf CA, Satterwhite CL, Malotte CK, DeAugustine N et al (2006) High incidence of new sexually transmitted infections in the year following a sexually transmitted infection: a case for rescreening. Ann Intern Med 145(8):564–572PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Du P, Coles B, Gerber T, McNutt LA (2007) Effects of partner notification on reducing Gonorrhea incidence rate. Sex Transm Dis 34(4):189–194PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Kissinger P, Schmidt N, Mohammed H, Leichliter JS, Gift TL, Meadors B et al (2006) Patient-delivered partner treatment for Trichomonas vaginalis infection: a randomized controlled trial. Sex Transm Dis 33(7):445–450PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Saperstein AK, Firnhaber GC (2010) Should you test or treat partners of patients with gonorrhea, chlamydia or trichomoniasis? J Fam Practice 59(1):46–48Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    DiClemente RJ, Crosby RA (2006) Preventing sexually transmitted infections among adolescents: the glass is half full. Curr Opin Infect Dis 19(1):39–43PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Harrison WO, Hooper RR, Weisner PJ, Campbell AF, Karney WW, Reynolds GH et al (1979) A trial of minocycline given after exposure to prevent gonorrhea. NEJM 300(19):1074–1078PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Holmes KK, Johnson DW, Kvale PA, Halverson CW, Keys TF, Martin DH (1996) Impact of a Gonorrhea control program, including selective mass treatment in female sex workers. J Infect Dis 174(Suppl 2):230–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Manhart LE, Holmes KK (2005) Randomized controlled trials of individual-level, population-level, and multileveled interventions for preventing sexually transmitted infections: what has worked? J Infect Dis 191(Suppl 1):7–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Jourden J, Etkind P (2004) Enhancing HIV/AIDS and STD prevention through program integration. Public Health Rep 119(1):4–11PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Yee L, Simon M (2010) The role of the social network in contraception decision-making among young, african american and latina women. J Adolesc Health 47(4):374–380PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Kim CR, Free C (2008) Recent evaluations of the peer-led approach in adolescent sexual health education: a systemic review. Int Fam Plann Perspect 34(2):89–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Berenson AB, Wu ZH, Breitkopf CR, Newman J (2006) The relationship between source of sexual information and sexual behavior among female adolescents. Contraception 73(3):274–278PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Borzekowski DLG, Rickert VI (2001) Adolescent cybersurfing for health information: a new resource that crosses barriers. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 155(7):813–817PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Gray NJ, Klein JD, Noyce PR, Sesselberg TS, Cantrill JA (2005) Health information-seeking behaviour in adolescence: the place of the internet. Soc Sci Med 60(7):1467–1478PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Vance K, Howe W, Dellavalle RP (2009) Social internet sites as a source of public health information. Dermatol Clin 27(2):133–136PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Ward H, Robinson AJ (2006) Still waiting: poor access to sexual health services in the UK. Sex Transm Infect 82(1):3PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Jones R, Menton-Johansson JR, Waters AM, Sullivan AK (2010) eTriage—a novel, web-based triage and booking service: enabling timely access to sexual health clinics. Int J STD AIDS 21(2):30–33PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Shamos SJ, Mettenbrink CJ, Subiadur JA, Mitchell BL, Rietmeijer CA (2008) Evaluation of a testing-only “express” visit option to enhance efficiency in a busy STI clinic. Sex Transm Dis 35(4):336–340PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Ruiz MS, Gable AR, Kaplan EH, Stoto MA, Fineberg HV, Trussell J (eds) (2001) No time to lose: getting more from HIV prevention. National Academy Press, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Santelli J, Ott MA, Lyon M, Rogers J, Summers D (2006) Abstinence-only education policies and program: a position paper of the Society for Adolescent Medicine. J Adolesc Health 38(1):83–87PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    World Health Organization (2011) Regional Office for Europe. Sexually transmitted infections. http://data.euro.who.int/cisid/Default.aspx?TabID=272714. Accessed 19 Sept 2011
  141. 141.
    European Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (2011) Annual epidemiological report on communicable diseases in Europe, 2010. http://ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications/Publications/1011_SUR_Annual_Epidemiological_Report_on_Communicable_Diseases_in_Europe_OnlinePDF.pdf. Accessed 19 Sept 2011Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011) Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2008. http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats08/tables/1.htm Accessed 19 Sept 2011Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer C. Smith
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tim Mailman
    • 3
  • Noni E. MacDonald
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Pediatric Infectious DiseasesDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada
  2. 2.Canadian Center for Vaccinology, IWK Health CenterDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada
  3. 3.IWK Health CenterDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada

Personalised recommendations