Benign Thyroid Conditions

  • Ka Tak WongEmail author
  • Anil T. Ahuja


The thyroid gland is a crucial endocrine organ and its primary endocrine function is to synthesize thyroid hormone. The secretion of thyroid hormone is mediated by thyrotropin-stimulating hormone (TSH) secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. Disturbances of the normal glandular function of the thyroid gland may result in hyperthyroidism/thyrotoxicosis or hypothyroidism. Patients with thyroid disorders may also present with diffuse enlargement (goiter), focal nodular enlargement (thyroid nodule), or compressive symptoms (dysphagia, respiratory distress). A careful clinical history and meticulous physical examination usually suggest a reasonable clinical diagnosis or a short list of differential diagnoses. Laboratory investigations including thyroid function tests allow accurate estimation of the thyroid hormonal status. Patients with high TSH levels are at an increased risk of malignancy [1]. Imaging also plays an integral role in the assessment of thyroid disorders and helps guide patient management.


Thyroid Gland Thyroid Nodule Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology Benign Thyroid Disease Thyroid Scintigraphy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Supplementary material

1-Hyperechoic nodule in MNG (WMV 4,045 KB)

2-Multinodular goiter transverse and sagittal (3,022 KB)

3-Isoechoic nodule (6,120 KB)

4-Halo benign vascularity with Power Doppler (2,492 KB)

5-Markedly hypoechoic nodule (6,135 KB)

6-Mulinodular goiter (5,570 KB)

7-Multinodular goiter (6,032 KB)

8-Benign nodules with surrounding hypoechoic halos (6,010 KB)

9-Benign perinodal vascularity (6,629 KB)

10-Cystic nodule with avascular solid component (3,776 KB)

11-Cystic nodule with septations and debris (6,089 KB)

12-Demonstration of coarse dysmorphic calcifications (6,035 KB)

13-Follicular adenoma with hypoechoic halo, transverse view (1,100 KB)

14-Follicular adenoma with hypoechoic halo, sagittal view (1,092 KB)

15-Heterogeneous nodule with comet-tail artifact (6,060 KB)

16-Nodule with rim calcification (4,485 KB)

17-Thyroid nodule with spongiform appearance (6,089 KB)

18-Multinodular thyroid, transvere (1,084 KB)

19-Multinodular thyroid, sagittal (1,084 KB)

21-Thyroid gland atrophy, post RaI (103,672 KB)

22-Hashimoto's thyroiditis with edema, septations, and pseud (51,126 KB)

23-Hashimoto's thyroiditis with 'swiss cheese' pattern of pa (72,356 KB)

43-Thymic tongue demonstration in adult, transverse view. A (84,816 KB)

44-Thymic tongue in adult, sagittal view as designated by ar (82,625 KB)

45-Thymus located superficial to esophagus with medial exten (5,387 KB)

46-Punctate hyperlucencies with comet-tails, representative (6,020 KB)


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Imaging and Interventional RadiologyPrince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong KongShatin, NTHong Kong SAR, The People’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Imaging and Interventional RadiologyThe Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales HospitalShatin (NT)Hong Kong (SAR), China

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