Traces and Factors
As an alternative to the coarse graining of the previous chapter, we now explore the consequences of having an invertible dynamics in which not all dynamical variables are observable. Essentially this means that we have a dynamical system operating in an m-dimensional space, but are able to observe only n < m of these variables. That is, we observe only a trace of its operation in an n-dimensional space because (m – n) of the variables are hidden to us, e.g., because either we do not know about them, or do not have the technology to measure them.
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