Open Discrete Time Systems

  • Michael C. Mackey
Part of the Springer Study Edition book series (SSE)


To this point we have examined two situations in which the entropy of a reversible system may appear to increase. In the first (coarse graining, Chapter 8), we have a transformation operating precisely but are unable to measure the dynamical variables with perfect accuracy. The second situation (taking a trace, Chapter 9) assumed that we did not have access to all of the dynamical variables, but only to a subset of them. In both situations, the system is closed in that there are no external influences acting on the system.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael C. Mackey
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Nonlinear Dynamics in Physiology and MedicineMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada

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