The L-Arabinose Resistance Test with Salmonella typhimurium

  • Carmen Pueyo
  • Manuel Ruiz-Rubio


The evidence that most animal carcinogens are also mutagens,(20,24) strongly suggesting that DNA is the ultimate target of carcinogenic activation, has been an important support of the somatic mutation theory of the etiology of cancer. The recent demonstration that a single point mutation, a GC to TA transversion, leads to the activation of a human oncogene(30,36) is in agreement with this suggestion.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    B. N. Ames, W. E. Durston, E. Yamasaki, and F. D. Lee, Carcinogens are mutagens: A simple test system combining liver homogenates for activation and bacteria for detection,Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 70, 2281–2285 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    B. N. Ames, F. D. Lee, and W. E. Durston, An improved bacterial test system for the detection and classification of mutagens and carcinogens,Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 70, 782–786 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    B. N. Ames, J. McCann, and E. Yamasaki, Methods for detecting carcinogens and mutagens with the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test,Mutat. Res. 31, 347–364 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    P. Arni, TV Mantel, E. Deparade, and D. Müller, Intrasanguine host-mediated assay withSalmonella typhimurium, Mutat. Res. 45, 291–307 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    B. E. Butterworth, Recommendations for practical strategies for short-term testing for mutagens/carcinogens, in:Strategies for Short-Term Testing for Mutagens/Carcinogens (B. E. Butterworth, ed.), pp. 89–102, CRC Press, West Palm Beach (1979).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    E. Englesberg, Enzymatic characterization of 17L-arabinose negative mutants ofEscherichia coli, J. Bacteriol.81, 996–1006 (1961).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    E. Englesberg, Regulation in theL-arabinose system, in:Metabolic Pathways (H. J. Vogel, ed.), Vol. 5, pp. 257–296, Academic Press, New York (1971).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    E. Englesberg, R. L. Anderson, R. Weinberg, N. Lee, P. Hoffee, G. Huttenhauer, and H. Boyer, L-Arabinose-sensitive, L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase-deficient mutants ofEscherichia coli, J. Bacteriol.84, 137–146 (1962).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    E. Englesberg and G. Wilcox, Regulation: Positive control,Annu. Rev. Genet.8, 219– 242 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. Fahring, Development of host-mediated mutagenicity tests, I. Differential response of yeast cells injected into testes of rats and peritoneum of mice and rats to mutagens,Mutat. Res. 26, 29–36 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    R. Fahring, Development of host–mediated mutagenicity tests-yeast systems II. Recovery of yeast cells out of testes, liver, lungs, and peritoneum of rats,Mutat. Res. 31, 381–394 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    G. Ficsor, R. D. Beyer, F. C. Janca, and D. M. Zimmer, An organ-specific host-mediated microbial assay for detecting chemical mutagensin vivo: Demonstration of mutagenic action in rat testes following streptozotocin treatment,Mutat. Res. 13, 283–287 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. G. Gabridge and M. S. Legator, A host-mediated microbial assay for the detection of mutagenic compounds,Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 130, 831–834 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    N. Guerola, J. L. Ingraham, and E. Cerda-Olmedo, Induction of closely–linked multiple mutations by nitrosoguanidine,Nature 230, 122–125 (1971).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. H. L. Green and W. J. Muriel, Mutagen testing using Trp+ reversion inEscherichia coli, Mutat. Res. 38, 3–32 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Hollstein and J. McCann, Short-term tests for carcinogens and mutagens,Mutat. Res. 65, 133–226 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    D. E. Levin, E. Yamasaki, and B. N. Ames, Anew Salmonella tester strain TA97, for the detection of frameshift mutagens. A run of cytosines as a mutational hot-spot,Mutat. Res. 94, 315–330 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    H. V. Mailing and C. N. Frantz, Metabolic activation of dimethylnitrosamine and diethylnitrosamine to mutagens,Mutat. Res. 25, 179–186 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    I. E. Mattern, Bases of evaluation of an Ames test, in:Progress in Environmental Mutagenesis and Carcinogenesis (A. Kappas, ed.) Vol. 2, pp. 187–189, Elsevier Biomedical Press, Amsterdam (1981).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    J McCann E Choi E Yamasaki BN Ames Detection of carcinogens as mutagens in theSalmonella/microsome test: Assay of 300 chemicalsProc. Natl. Acad. Sei. USA 72, 5135–5139 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    J. McCann, N. E. Spingarn, J. Kobori, and B. N. Ames, Detection of carcinogens as mutagens. Bacterial tester strains with R factor plasmids,Proc. Natl. Acad. Sei. USA 72, 979–983 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    G. Mohn and J. Ellenberger, Mammalian blood-mediated mutagenicity test using a multipurpose strain ofEscherichia coli K–12,Mutat. Res. 19, 257–260 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    G. Mohn, J. Ellenberger, D. McGregor, and H. J. Merker, Mutations in plants, microorganisms and in host-mediated assay,Mutat. Res. 29, 221–233 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. Nagao, T. Sugimura, and T. Matsushima, Environmental mutagens and carcinogens,Annu. Rev. Genet. 12, 117–159 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    C. Pueyo, Forward mutations to arabinose resistance inSalmonella typhimurium strains. A sensitive assay for mutagenicity testing,Mutat. Res. 54, 311–321 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    C. Pueyo, Natulan induces forward mutations to L-arabinose-resistance inSalmonella typhimurium, Mutat Res. 67, 189–192 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    C. Pueyo, D. Frezza, and B. Smith, Evaluation of three metabolic activation systems by a forward mutation assay inSalmonella, Mutat. Res. 64, 183–194 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    C. Pueyo and J. Lopez-Barea, The L-arabinose-resistance test ofSalmonella typhimurium strain SV3 selects forward mutations at severalara genes,Mutat. Res. 64, 249–258 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    I. F. H. Purchase, ICPEMC Working Paper 2/6. An appraisal of predictive tests for carcinogenicity,Mutat. Res. 99, 53–71 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    E. P. Reddy, R. K. Reynolds, E. Santos, and M. Barbacid, A point mutation is responsible for the acquisition of transforming properties by the T24 human bladder carcinoma oncogene,Nature 300, 149–152 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    M. Ruiz-Rubio and C. Pueyo, Double mutants with both His reversion and Ara forward mutation systems ofSalmonella, Mutat. Res. 105, 383–386 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    R. Ruiz-Vazquez, C. Pueyo, and E. Cerda-Olmedo, A mutagen assay detecting forward mutations in an arabinose–sensitive strain ofSalmonella typhimurium, Mutat. Res. 54, 121–129 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    L. E. Sacks and J. T. MacGregor, TheB. subtilis multigene sporulation test for mutagens: Detection of mutagens inactive in the Salmonellahis reversion test,Mutat. Res. 95, 191–202 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    D. E. Sheppard and D. A. Walker, Polarity in genearaB of theL-arabinose operon inEscherichia coli B/r,J. Bacteriol. 100, 715–723 (1969).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    T. R. Skopek, H. L. Liber, J. J. Krolewski, and W. G. Thilly, Quantitative foward mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium using 8-azaguanine resistance as a genetic marker, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 410–414 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    C. J. Tabin, S. M. Bradley, C. I. Bargmann, R. A. Weinberg, A. G. Papageorge, E. M. Scolnick, R. Dhar, D. R. Lowy, and E. H. Chang, Mechanism of activation of a human oncogene,Nature 300, 143–149 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    L. A. Wheeler, J. H. Carter, F. B. Soderberg, and P. Goldman, Association ofSalmonella mutants with germfree rats: Site specific model to detect carcinogens as mutagens,Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72, 4607–4611 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    W. Z. Whong, J. Stewart, and T. M. Ong, Use of the improved arabinose-resistant assay system ofSalmonella typhimurium for mutagenesis testing,Environ. Mutagen. 3, 95–99 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    R. G. Wilkinson, R. Gemski, and B. A. D. Stocker, Non-smooth mutants ofSalmonella typhimurium. Differentiation by phage sensitivity and genetic mapping,J.Gen. Microbiol. 70, 527–554 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    M. Ruiz–Rubio, C. Hera, and C. Pueyo. Comparison of a forward and a reverse mutation assay inSalmonello typhimurium measuringL-arabinose resistance and histidine prototrophy,EMBO Journal, in press (1984).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carmen Pueyo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Manuel Ruiz-Rubio
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Departmento de GenéticaUniversidad de Extremadura, Facultad de CienciasBadajozSpain
  2. 2.Departamento de Genética, Facultad de CienciasUniversidad de CórdobaCórdobaSpain

Personalised recommendations