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The Grasshopper Neuroblast Short-Term Assay for Evaluating the Effects of Environmental Chemicals on Chromosomes and Cell Kinetics

  • Mary Esther Gaulden
  • Jan C. Liang
  • Martha J. Ferguson
Chapter

Abstract

The grasshopper neuroblast (GHNb) is a newcomer to the library of tests available for evaluating the mutagenicity of environmental chemicals. Most of the current tests have been in use since the beginning of the present era of active research on the identification of environmental mutagens and carcinogens, which began to attain international momentum in the late 1960s.(28,56) Why, then, did we recently develop another assay? First, the neuroblast (Nb) of the grasshopper Chortophaga viridifasciata (De Geer) has been shown to be very sensitive to X rays (the effects of doses as low as 1 rad on chromosome breakage and on mitotic rate can be detected(42,43)), so we reasoned that it might also be very sensitive to chemical mutagens. Second, the fact that the spontaneous chromosome aberration frequency in the GHNb is zero means that significant data on mutagens can be obtained with a minimum number of cells. Third, the GHNb has a short cell cycle(44) with a number of well-defined phases, and thus, much information about the effects of agents on cell progression can be obtained. This aspect of environmental mutagen action has received relatively little attention and is of considerable relevance to teratogenesis.(36) The short cell cycle (Chortophaga, 4 hr; Melanoplus sanguinipes, 2 hr, 38°C) is also advantageous for testing chemicals with short half-lives.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mary Esther Gaulden
    • 1
  • Jan C. Liang
    • 2
  • Martha J. Ferguson
    • 1
  1. 1.Radiation Biology Section, Department of RadiologyUniversity of Texas Health Science Center at DallasDallasUSA
  2. 2.Department of Cell BiologyUniversity of Texas System Cancer Center, M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor InstituteHoustonUSA

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