Advertisement

Clinical Relevance of Endotoxemia

  • James P. Nolan
Chapter
  • 88 Downloads
Part of the University of South Florida International Biomedical Symposia Series book series (EMISS, volume 18)

Abstract

Endotoxins are in the outer cell wall of gram-negative bacteria. While endotoxins contain protein, the toxic portion is composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and the terms are often used interchangeably. The innermost portion is lipid A and this moiety demonstrates all the biological effects of this potent material, and is similar in structure among most endotoxins. Endotoxin is formed by death of bacteria as well as by vesicle formation and release by the living bacterium.

Keywords

Liver Injury Acute Renal Failure Bile Salt Kupffer Cell Obstructive Jaundice 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Y. Adachi, M. Enomoto, M. Adachi, et al., Enteric coated polymyxin B in the treatment of hyperammonemia and endotoxemia in liver disease, Gastroent. Japan 17: 550 (1982).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. V. Ali and J. P. Nolan, Serial assessment of reticuloendothelial function in experimentally induced nutritional cirrhosis, Lab Invest 21: 184 (1969).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    E. F. Asher, N. R. Garrison, D. J. Ratcliffe, and D. E. Fry, Endotoxin, cellular function, and nutrient blood flow, Arch. Surg. 118: 441 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. E. Bailey, Endotoxin bile salts and renal function in obstructive jaundice, Brit. J. Surg. 63: 774 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    P. B. Beeson, Tolerance to bacterial pyrogens. II. Role of the reticulo-endothelial system, J. Exp. Med. 86: 39 (1947).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. A. Broitman, L. S. Gottlieb, and N. Zamcheck, Influence of neomycin and ingested endotoxin in the pathogenesis of choline deficiency cirrhosis in the adult rat, J. Exp. Med. 119: 633 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    C. J. Cahill, Prevention of post-operative renal failure in patient with obstructive jaundice—the role of bile salts, Brit. J. Surg. 70: 590 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    D. S. Camara, J. A. Caruana, K. A. Schwartz, et al., D-galactosamine liver injury: absorption of endotoxin and protective effect of small bowel resection in rabbits, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 172: 255 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. Chien, D. G. Sinclair, R. J. Dellenback, et al., Effect of endotoxin on capillary permeability to macromolecules, Am. J. Surg. 207: 518 (1964).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    C. Clemente, J. Bosch, J. Rodes, et al., Functional renal failure and hemorrhogic gastritis associated with endotoxemia in cirrhosis, Gut 18: 556 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    P. Cuevas and J. Fine, Route of absorption of endotoxin from the intestine in non-septic shock, J. Reticuloendothel. Soc. 11: 535 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    B. Ditter, K. P. Becker, R. Urbaschek, and B. Urbaschek, Quantitativer Endotoxin - Nachweis. Arzneim. Forsch., Drug Res. 33: 681 (1983).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    B. Ditter, R. Urbaschek, and B. Urbaschek, Ability of various absorbents to bind endotoxins in vitro and to prevent orally induced endotoxemia in mice, Gastroenterol. 84: 1547 (1983).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    P. Escartin, J. Rodrigues-Montes, V. Cuervas-Mons, et al., Effect of colistin on reduction of biliary flow induced by endotoxin of E. coli, Dig. Pis. Sci. 27: 875 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    W. E. Farrar, M. Edison, and T. H. Kant, Susceptibility of rabbits to pyrogenic and lethal effects of endotoxin after acute liver injury, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 128: 711 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    P. C. Fink and K. D. Schultze, The polyethylene glycol precipitation technique and particle counting immunoassay for detection of circulatory immune complex material in liver cirrhosis and septicemia, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 90: 852 (1982).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    S. B. Formal, H. E. Noyes, and H. Schneider, Experimental Shigella infections. III. Sensitivity of normal, starved and carbon tetra-chloride treated guinea pigs to endotoxin, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 103: 415 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. T. Fulenwider, C. Sibley, S. F. Stein, et al., Endotoxemia of cirrhosis; an observation not substantiated, Gastroenterol. 78: 1001 (1980).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    C. Galanos, M. S. Freudenberg, and W. Rutter, Galactosamine induced sensitization to the lethal effects of endotoxin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76: 939 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. Gatta, L. Milani, C. Merkel, et al., Lack of correlation between endotoxemia and renal hypoperfusion in cirrhotics without overt renal failure, Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 12: 417 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    S. Ghosh and M. Liu, Decrease in adenylate cyclase activity in dog livers during endotoxic shock, Am. J. Physiol. 245: R737 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. Grun, H. Liehr, and U. Rasanach, Significance of endotoxemia in experimental “galactosamine hepatitis” in the rat, Acta. Hepatogast. 23: 64 (1976).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. R. Gut, S. Schmitt, A. Bingen, et al., Probable role of endogenous endotoxins in hepatocytolysis during murine hepatitis caused by frog virus 3, J. Infect. Pis. 149 (1984).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    W. Kruis, P. Schussler, M. Weinzierl, C. Galanos, and J. Eisenburg, Circulating lipid A antibodies despite absence of systemic endotoxemia in patients with Crohn’s disease, Dig. Pis. Sci. 29: 502 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. Liu, S. Ghosh, and Y. Yang, Change in membrane lipid fluidity induced by phospholipase A activation: A mechanism of endotoxin shock, Life Sci. 33: 1995 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    T. P. Luckey, J. A. Reyniers, P. Gyorgy, et al., Germ-free animals and liver necrosis, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 57: 932 (1954).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    S. K. Maitra, A. Rachmileuwitz, P. Eberle, et al., The hepatocellular uptake and excretion of endotoxin in the rat, Hepatology 1: 401 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    P. C. Morrison and R. J. Ulevitch, The effects of bacterial endotoxins on host mediation systems, Am. J. Pathol. 93: 527 (1978).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    J. P. Nolan, The role of endotoxins in liver injury, Gastroenterol. 69: 1346 (1975).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    J. P. Nolan and M. V. Ali, Endotoxin and the liver. I. Toxicity in rats with choline deficient fatty livers, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 129: 29 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    J. P. Nolan and M. V. Ali, Effect of cholestyamine on endotoxin toxicity and absorption, Am. J. Dis. 17: 161 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    J. P. Nolan and M. V. Ali, Endotoxin and liver. II. Effect of tolerance on carbon tetrachloride induced injury, J. Med. 4: 28 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    J. P. Nolan and P. S. Camara, Endotoxin, sinusoidal cells and liver injury, in: “Progress in Liver Pisease, Volume VII,” H. Popper, and F. Schaffner, eds., Grune and Stratton, Inc. (1982).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    J. P. Nolan and A. I. Leibowitz, Endotoxin and the liver. III. Modification of acute carbon tetrachloride injury by polymyxin B—an anti-endotoxin, Gastroenterol. 75: 445 (1978).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    J. P. Nolan, A. I. Leibowitz, and A. O. Vladutiu, Influence of alcohol on Kupffer cell function and possible significance in liver injury, in: “The Reticuloendothelial System and The Pathogenesis of Liver Disease,” H. Liehr and M. Grun, eds., Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam (1980a).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    J. P. Nolan, A. I. Leibowitz, and A. O. Vladutiu, Influence of carbon tetrachloride on circulatory endotoxin after the exogeneous administration of endotoxin in rats, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 165: 453 (1980b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    J. P. Nolan, R. C. Venuto, and G. S. Goldmann, Role of endotoxin in glycerol-induced renal failure in the rat, Clin. Sci. Mol. Med. 54: 615 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    J. P. Nolan, A. O. Vladutiu, P. M. Moreno, S. A. Cohen, and P. S. Camara, Immunoradiometric assay of lipid A: A test for detecting and quantitating endotoxins of various origins, J. Immunol. Meth. 55: 63 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    R. Ogawa, T. Morita, F. Kunimoto, and T. Fujita, Changes in hepatic lipoperoxide concentration in endotoxemic rats, Circ. Shock 9: 369 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    P. J. O’Leary, J. W. Maher, J. I. Hollenbeck, et al., Pathogenesis of hepatic failure after obesity bypass, Surg. Forum 23: 356 (1974).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    K. R. Palmer, B. I. Puerden, and C. P. Holdsworth, Bacteriological and endotoxin studies in cases of ulcerative colitis submitted to surgery, Gut 21: 851 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    P. P. Praaning-VanPalen, A. Brouwer, and P. L. Knook, Clearance capacity of rat liver, Kupffer, endothelial, and parenchymal cells, Gastroenterol. 81: 1036 (1981).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    M. Ragni, J. Lewis, and J. Spero, Ascites-induced LeVeen shunt coagulopathy, Ann. Surg. 193: 91 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    J. Rasenach, A. K. Koch, J. Nowack, et al., Hepatotoxicity of D-glactosamine in the isolated perfused rat liver, Exp. Mol. Pathol. 32: 264 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    J. T. Reeves, and R. F. GroverBlockade of acute hypoxic pulmonary hypertension by endotoxin, J. Appl. Physiol. 36: 328 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    A. M. Rutenburg, E. Sonneblick, I. Koven, et al., The role of intestinal bacteria in the development of dietary cirrhosis in rats, J. Exp. Med. 106: 1 (1957).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    D. Scevola, E. Magliulo, G. Earbarini, et. al., Possible anti-endotoxin activity of cyanidanol-3 in experimental hepatitis in the rat, Hepato-gastroenterol. 29: 178 (1982).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    D. W. Scherfeie, P. Melton, and V. Whitechelo, Evaluation of the Limulus test for endotoxemia in neonates with suspected sepsis, J. Pediatr. 98: 899 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    D. W. Scherfeie, E. Olsen, S. Fussell, and N. Pedray, Spontaneous endotoxemia in premature infant: correlations with oral feeding and bowel dysfunction, J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 4: 67 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    J. L. Shenep and K. A. Morgan, Kinetics of endotoxin release during antibiotic therapy for experimental gram-negative bacterial sepsis, J. Inf. Dis. 150: 380 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    R. J. Stumacher, M. J. Kovnat, and W. R. McCabe, Limitations of the usefulness of the Limulus assay for endotoxin, New Eng. J. Med. 288: 1261 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    K. Tarao, K. So, T. Moroi, et al., Detection of endotoxin in plasma and ascites of patients with cirrhosis; its clinical significance, Gastroenterol. 73: 539 (1977).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    N. Teng, H. Kaplan, J. Herbert, C. Moore, H. Douglas, A. Wunderlich, and A. Braude, Protection against gram-negative bacteremia and endotoxemia with human monoclonal IgM antibodies, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82: 1790 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    U. Turunen, M. Malkamaki, V. V. Valtoneu, et al., High titers of enterobacterial common antigen antibodies in patient with alcoholic cirrhosis, Gut 22: 849 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    A. C. VanVilet, H. C. Maas, and J.H.P. Wilson, The effect of portasystemic shunting and RES function on endotoxemia in human liver disease, in: “The Reticuloendothelial System and Pathogenesis of Liver Disease”,11 H. Liehr, and M. Grun, eds., Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam (1980).Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    W. A. Walker, R. Cornell, L. M. Davenport, et al., Macromolecular absorption mechanism of horseradish peroxidase uptake in adult and neonatal rat intestine, J. Cell. Biol. 54: 195 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    E. N. Wardle, Endotoxemia and the pathogenesis of acute renal failure, Quart. J. Med. 44: 389 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    E. N. Wardle, Acute renal failure in the 1980’s: the importance of septic shock and of endotoxemia, Nephron. 30: 193 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    W. Wellmann, P. C. Fink, and F. W. Schmidt, Whole-gut irrigation as antiendotoxinaemic therapy in inflammatory bowel disease, Hepato-gastroenterol. 31: 91 (1984).Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    S. P. Wilkinson, V. Arroyo, B. G. Gazzard, et al., Relationship of renal impairment and hemorrhogic diathesis to endotoxemia in fulminant hepatic failure, Lancet 1: 521 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    T. Yoshikawa, M. Murakami, Y. Furukawa, H. Kato, S. Takemura, and M. Kondo, Lipid peroxidation and experimental disseminated intravascular coagulation in rats induced by endotoxin, Thromb. Haemostas. (Stuttgart) 49: 214 (1983).Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    R. L. Yost, M. C. Duerson, W. L. Russel, et al., Doxycycline in the prevention of hepatic dysfunction: an evaluation of its use following jejunoileal bypass in humans, Arch. Surg. 114: 931 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • James P. Nolan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MedicineState University of New York at Buffalo School of MedicineBuffaloUSA

Personalised recommendations