Advertisement

Specific Lesion Subsets

  • Gregory W. Barsness
  • John F. Bresnahan
Chapter

Abstract

One of the early lessons in interventional cardiology was the discovery that certain angiographic features were associated with poor acute outcome, in particular, abrupt or threatened occlusion [1,2]. Because these lesion characteristics accounted for a major portion of the morbidity related to balloon angioplasty, guidelines were developed in an effort to risk-stratify patients based on angiographic criteria and to dissuade intervention in high-risk subgroups [3].

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ellis SG, Roubin GS, King SB III, et al.: Angiographic and clinical predictors of acute closure after native vessel coronary angioplasty. Circulation 1988, 77:372–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Myler RK, Shaw RE, Stertzer SH, et al.: Lesion morphology and coronary angioplasty: current experience and analysis.J Am Coll Cardiol 1992, 19:1641–1652.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ryan TJ, Faxon DP, Gunnar RM, et al.: Guidelines for percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Assessment of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Cardiovascular Procedures (Subcommittee on Percutaneous Coronary Angioplasty). J Am Coll Cardiol 1988, 12:529–545.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ellis SG, Guetta V, Miller D, et al.: Relation between lesion characteristics and risk with percutaneous intervention in the stent and glycoprotein IIb /IIIa era: an analysis of results from 10,907 lesions and proposal for new classification scheme. Circulation 1999, 100:1971–1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Topol EJ, Ellis SG, Fishman J, et al.: Multicenter study of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for right coronary artery ostial stenosis.J Am Coll Cardiol 1987, 9:1214–1218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sabri MN, Cowley MJ, DiSciascio G, et al.: Immediate results of interventional devices for coronary ostial narrowing with angina pectoris. Am J Cardiol 1994, 73:122–125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jain SP, Liu MW, Dean LS, et al.: Comparison of balloon angioplasty versus debulking devices versus stenting in right coronary ostial lesions. Am J Cardiol 1997, 79:1334–1338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Motwani JG, Raymond RE, Franco I, et al.: Effectiveness of rotational atherectomy of right coronary artery ostial stenosis. Am J Cardiol 2000, 85:563–567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rocha-Singh K, Morris N, Wong SC, et al.: Coronary stenting for treatment of ostial stenoses of native coronary arteries or aortocoronary saphenous venous grafts. Am J Cardiol 1995, 75:26–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Silvestri M, Barragan P, Sainsous J, et al.: Unprotected left main coronary artery stenting: immediate and medium-term outcomes of 140 elective procedures. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000, 35:1543–1550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Amin FR, Horlitz M, Yousufuddin M, et al.: Acute and long-term clinical outcome of aorto-ostial vs non-aorto-ostial stenting. Am J Cardiol 2000; TCT abstracts:43i.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rieu R, Barragan P, Masson C, et al.: Radial force of coronary stents: a comparative analysis. Cathet Cardiovasc Intervent 1999, 46:380–391.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mathias DW, Mooney JF, Lange HW, et al.: Frequency of success and complications of coronary angioplasty of a stenosis at the ostium of a branch vessel. Am J Cardiol 1991, 67:491–495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tan KH, Sulke N, Taub N, Sowton E: Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty of aorta ostial, non-aorta ostial, and branch ostial stenoses: acute and long-term outcome. Eur Heart J 1995, 16:631–639.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Al Suwaidi J, Berger PB, Rihal CS, et al.: Immediate and long-term outcome of intracoronary stent implantation for true bifurcation lesions.J Am Coll Cardiol 2000, 35:929–936.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Peacock J, Jones T, Tock C, et al.: An in vitro study on the effect of branch points on the stability of coronary artery flow. Med Eng Phys 1997, 19:101–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Perktold K, Hofer M, Rappitsch G, et al.: Validated computation of physiologic flow in a realistic coronary artery branch.J Biomech 1998, 31:217–228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Brener SJ, Leya FS, Apperson-Hanson C, et al.: A comparison of debulking versus dilatation of bifurcation coronary arterial narrowings (from the CAVEAT I trial). Am J Cardiol 1996, 78:1039–1041.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dauerman HL, Higgins PJ, Sparano AM, et al.: Mechanical debulking versus balloon angioplasty for the treatment of true bifurcation lesions.J Am Coll Cardiol 1998, 32:1845–1852.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rihal CS, Garratt KN, Holmes DR: Rotational atherectomy for bifurcation lesions of the coronary circulation: technical and initial experience. Int J Cardiol 1998, 65:1–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Oesterle SN: Coronary interventions at a crossroads: the bifurcation stenosis. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998, 32:1853–1854.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pan M, Medina A, Suarez de Lezo J, et al.: Follow-up patency of side branches covered by intracoronary Palmaz-Schatz stent. Am Heart J 1995, 129:436–440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fischman DL, Savage MP, Leon MB, et al.: Rate of lesion-related side branches after coronary artery stenting. J Am Coll Cardiol 1993, 22:1641–1646.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ellis SG, Lincoff AM, Miller D, et al.: Reduction in complications of angioplasty with abciximab occurs largely independently of baseline lesion morphology. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998, 32:1619–1623.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Arora RR, Raymond RE, Dimas AP, et al.: Side branch occlusion during coronary angioplasty: incidence, angiographic characteristics, and outcome. Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn 1989, 18:210–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Stone GW, Rutherford BD, McConahay DR, et al.: Procedural outcome of angioplasty for total coronary artery occlusion: an analysis of 971 lesions in 905 patients. J Am Coll Cardiol 1990, 15:849–856.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ivanhoe RJ, Weintraub WS, Douglas JS Jr, et al.: Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty of chronic total occlusions. Circulation 1992, 85:106–115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bell MR, Berger PB, Bresnahan JF, et al.: Initial and long term outcome of 354 patients following coronary balloon angioplasty of total coronary artery occlusions. Circulation 1992, 85:1003–1011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ruocco NA, Ring ME, Holubkov R, et al.: Results of coronary angioplasty of chronic total occlusions (the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute 1985–1986 Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty Registry). Am J Coll Cardiol 1992, 69:69–76.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Haine E, Urban P, Dorsaz PA, Meier B: Outcome and complications of 500 consecutive chronic total occlusion angioplasties.J Am Coll Cardiol 1993, 2L138A.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kinoshita I, Katoh O, Nariyama J, et al.: Coronary angioplasty of chronic total occlusions with bridging collateral vessels: immediate and follow-up outcome from a large single-center experience.J Am Coll Cardiol 1995, 26:409–415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Noguchi T, Miyazaki S, Morii I, et al.: Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty of chronic total occlusions. Determinants of primary success and long-term clinical outcome. Cathet Cardiovasc Interv 2000, 49:258–264.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Serruys PW, Hamburger JN, Koolen JJ, et al.: Total occlusion trial with angioplasty by using laser guidewire. The TOTAL trial. Eur Heart J 2000, 21:1737–1738.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Koolen JJ, Bonnier H, Grube E: A novel guiding system for facilitating the crossing of plaque and chronic total occlusions (abstract).J Am Coll Cardiol 2000, 35:40A.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Braden GA, Xenopoulos NP, Young T, et al.: Transluminal extraction catheter atherectomy followed by immediate stenting in treatment of saphenous vein grafts. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997, 30:657–663.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Waksman R, Weintraub WS, Ghazzal Z, et al.: Short- and long-term outcome of narrowed saphenous vein bypass graft: a comparison of Palmaz-Schatz stent, directional coronary atherectomy, and balloon angioplasty Am Heart J 1997, 134:274–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Buller CE, Dzavik V, Carere RG, et al.: Primary stenting versus balloon angioplasty in occluded coronary arteries: the total occlusion study of Canada (TOSCA). Circulation 1999, 100:236–242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hoher M, Wohrle J, Grebe OC, et al.: A randomized trial of elective stenting after balloon recanalization of chronic total occlusions.J Am Coll Cardiol 1999, 34:722–729.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lotan C, Rozenman Y, Hendler A, et al.: Stents in total occlusion for restenosis prevention. The Multicentre randomized STOP study. The Israeli Working Group for Interventional Cardiology. Eur Heart J 2000, 21:1960–1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hamburger JN, Serruys PW: The battle of Vladimir. Eur Heart J 2000, 21:1911–1913.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Katsuragawa M, Fujiwara H, Miyamae M, et al.: Histologic studies in percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty for chronic total occlusion: comparison of tapering and abrupt types of occlusion and short and long occluded segments. J Am Coll Cardiol 1993, 21:604–611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Berger PB, Bresnahan J: Use of excimer laser in the treatment of chronic total occlusion of a coronary artery that cannot be crossed with a balloon catheter. Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn 1993, 28:44–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Fitzgerald PJ, Ports TA, Yock PG: Contribution of localized calcium deposits to dissection after angioplasty: an observational study using intravascular ultrasound. Circulation 1992, 86:64–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Komiyama N, Stone GW, Alderman EL, et al.: Relative stent expansion is dependent upon target segment calcification: an intravascular ultrasound assessment. Circulation 1996, 94 (suppl I):I—262.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mintz GS, Popma JJ, Pichard AD, et al.: Patterns of calcification in coronary artery disease: a statistical analysis of intravascular ultrasound and coronary angiography in 1155 lesions. Circulation l995, 91:1959–1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Moussa I, Di Mario C, Moses J, et al.: Coronary stenting after rotational atherectomy in calcified and complex lesions: angiographic and clinical follow-up results. Circulation 1997, 96:128–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Henneke KH, Regar E, Konig A, et al.: Impact of target lesion calcification on coronary stent expansion after rotational atherectomy. Am Heart J 1999, 137:93–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hoffmann R, Mintz GS, Kent KM, et al.: Is there an optimal therapy for calcified lesions in large vessels? Comparative acute and follow-up results of rotational atherectomy, stents, or the combination.J Am Coll Cardiol 1997, 29:68A.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ryan TJ, Bauman WB, Kennedy JW, et al.: Guidelines for percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. A report of the American Heart Association/ American College of Cardiology Task Force on Assessment of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Cardiovascular Procedures (Committee on Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty). Circulation 1996, 88:2987–3007.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Savage MP, Goldberg S, Hirshfeld JW, et al.: Clinical and angiographic determinants of primary coronary angioplasty success.J Am Coll Cardiol 1991, 17:22–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Schunkert H, Harreil L, Palacious IF: Implications of small reference vessel diameter in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary revascularization. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999, 34:40–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hirshfeld JW, Schwartz JS, Jugo R, et al.: Restenosis after coronary angioplasty: a multivariate statistical model to relate lesion and procedure variables to restenosis. The M-HEART Investigators.J Am Coll Cardiol 1991, 18:647–656.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Foley DP, Melkert R, Serruys PW: Influence of coronary vessel size on renarrowing process and late angiographic outcome after successful balloon angioplasty Circulation 1994, 90:1239–1251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Savage MP, Fischman DL, Rake R, et al.: Efficacy of coronary stenting versus balloon angioplasty in small coronary arteries: Stent Restenosis Study (STRESS) Investigators.J Am Coll Cardiol 1998, 31:307–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Elezi S, Kastrati A, Neumann FJ, et al.: Vessel size and long-term outcome after coronary stent placement. Circulation 1998, 98:1875–1880.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Briguori C, Nishida T, Adamian M, et al.: Coronary stenting versus balloon angioplasty in small coronary artery with complex lesions. Cathet Cardiovasc Mew 2000, 50:390–397.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kastrati A, Schomig A, Dirschinger J, et al.: A randomized trial comparing stenting with balloon angioplasty in small vessels in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease. ISAR-SMART Study Investigators. Intracoronary stenting or angioplasty for restenosis reduction in small arteries. Circulation 2000, 102(21):2593–2598.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sigwart U, Prasad S, Radke P, Nadra I: Stent coatings.J Invasive Cardiol 2001, 13(2):141–142, discussion 158–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Goudreau E, DiSciascio G, Kelly K, et al.: Coronary angioplasty of diffuse coronary artery disease. Am Heart J 1991, 121(1 pt 1):12–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Bergelson BA, Jacobs AK, Cupples LA, et al.: Prediction of risk for hemodynamic compromise during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Am J Cardiol 1992, 70(20):1540–1545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    de Feyter PJ, de Jaegere PP, Serruys PW: Incidence, predictors, and management of acute coronary occlusion after coronary angioplasty. Am Heart J 1994, 127(3):643–651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kaul U, Upasani PT, Agarwal R, et al.: In-hospital outcome of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty for long lesions and diffuse coronary artery disease. Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn 1995, 35(4):294–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Cannon AD, Roubin GS, Hearn JA, et al.: Acute angiographic and clinical results of long balloon percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and adjuvant stenting for long narrowings. Am J Cardiol 1994, 73(9):635–641.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Di Sciascio G, Patti G, Nasso G, et al.: Early and long-term results of stenting diffuse coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 2000, 86(11):1166–1170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kobayashi Y, DeGregorio J, Kobayashi N, et al.: Stented segment length as an independent predictor of restenosis. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999, 34(3):651–659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kastrati A, Elezi S, Dirschinger J, et al.: Influence of lesion length on restenosis after coronary stent placement. Am J Cardiol 1999, 83:1617–1622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Bauters C, Hubert E, Prat A, et al.: Predictors of restenosis after coronary stent implantation. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998, 31:1291–1298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kornowski R, Mehran R, Hong MK, et al.: Procedural results and late clinical outcomes after placement of three or more stents in single coronary lesions. Circulation 1998, 97:1355–1361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Liu MW, Luo JF, Dean LS, et al.: Long-term follow-up study of coronary reconstruction with multiple stents. Am Heart J 1999, 137:292–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Rozenman Y, Mereuta A, Schechter D, et al.: Long-term outcome of patients with very long stents for treatment of diffuse coronary disease. Am Heart J 1999, 138:441–445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    DeGregorio J, Moussa I, Adamian M, et al.: The use of IVUS-guided PTCA and spot stenting for the treatment of long lesions: a comparison to traditional stenting. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000; abstracts-ACCIS 2000:62A.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    White CJ, Ramee SR, Collins TJ, et al.: Coronary thrombi increase PTCA risk. Angioscopy as a clinical tool. Circulation 1996, 93:253–258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Vaitkus PT, Hermann HC, Laskey W: Management and immediate outcome of patients with intracoronary thrombus during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Am Heart J 1992, 124:1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Block PB, Peterson EC, Krone R, et al.: Identification of variables needed to risk-adjust outcomes of coronary interventions: evidence-based guidelines for efficient data collection.J Am Coll Cardiol 1998, 32:275–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    den Heijer P, Foley DP, Escaned J, et al.: Angioscopic versus angiographic detection of intimai dissection and intracoronary thrombus.J Am Coll Cardiol 1994, 24:649–654.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Cohen M, Demers C, Gurfinkel EP, et al.: A comparison of low-molecular-weight heparin with unfractionated heparin for unstable coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med 1997, 337:447–452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Wallentin L: Low-molecular-weight heparins in coronary thrombosis: today and tomorrow. Haemostasis 1999, 29(suppl Sl):32–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Topol EJ: Evolution of improved antithrombotic and antiplatelet agents: genesis of the Comparison of Abciximab Complications with Hirulog [and Back-up Abciximab] Events Trial (CACHET). Am J Cardiol 1998, 82(8B):63P-68P.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Mehta SR, Yusuf S, Peters RJG, et al.: Effects of pretreatment with Clopidogrel and aspirin followed by long-term therapy in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: the PCI-CURE study. Lancet 2001, 358:9281.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Cannon CP, Weintraub WS, Demopoulos LA, et al.: Comparison of early invasive and conservative strategies in patients with unstable coronary syndromes treated with the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor tirofiban. N Engl J Med 2001, 344:1879–1887.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Mehran R, Ambrose JA, Bongu RM, et al.: Angioplasty of complex lesions in ischemic rest angina: results of the Thrombolysis and Angioplasty in Unstable Angina (TAUSA) trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 1995, 26:961–966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gold HK, Garabedian HD, Dinsmore RE, et al.: Restoration of coronary flow in myocardial infarction by intravenous chimeric 7E3 antibody without exogenous plasminogen activators. Observations in animals and humans. Circulation 1997, 95:1755–1759.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Muhlestein JB, Karagounis LA, Treehan S, et al.: “Rescue” utilization of abciximab for the dissolution of coronary thrombus developing as a complication of coronary angioplasty.J Am Coll Cardiol 1997, 30:1729–1734.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Mak KH, Challapalli R, Eisenberg MJ, et al.: Effect of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibition on distal embolization during percutaneous revascularization of aortocoronary saphenous vein grafts. Am J Cardiol 1997, 80:985–988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ellis SG, Lincoff LM, Miller D, et al.: Reduction in complications of angioplasty with abciximab occurs largely independently of baseline lesion morphology: EPIC and EPILOG investigators.J Am Coll Cardiol 1998, 32:1619–1623.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Mathew V, Grill DE, Scott CG, et al.: The influence of abciximab use on clinical outcome after aortocoronary vein graft interventions.J Am Coll Cardiol 1999, 34:1163–1169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Barsness GW, Buller C, Ohman EM, et al.: Reduced thrombus burden with abciximab delivered locally before percutaneous intervention in saphenous vein grafts. Am Heart J 2000, 139:824–829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    The PURSUIT Trial Investigators: Inhibition of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa with eptifibatide in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Platelet Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in Unstable Angina: Receptor Suppression Using Integrum Therapy. N Engl J Med 1998, 339:436–443.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    O’Shea JC, Hafley GE, Greenberg S, et al.: Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa integrin blockade with eptifibatide in coronary stent intervention: the ESPRIT trial: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2001, 285:2468–2473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    PRISM-PLUS Study Investigators: Inhibition of the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor with tirofiban in unstable angina and non-Q wave myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1998, 338:1488–1497.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Bhatt DL, Topol EJ: Current role of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in acute coronary syndromes. JAMA 2000, 284:1549–1558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Bailey SR, O’Leary E, Chilton R: Angioscopic evaluation of site-specific administration of ReoPro. Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn 1997, 42:181–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Kiesz RS, Buszman P, Martin JL, et al.: Local delivery of enoxaparin to decrease restenosis after stenting: results of initial multicenter trial: Polish-American Local Lovenox NIR Assessment study (The POLONIA study). Circulation 2001, 103:26–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Mitchel JF, Fram DB, Palme DF II, et al.: Enhanced intracoronary thrombolysis with urokinase using a novel, local delivery system: in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies. Circulation 1995, 91:785–793.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Fram DB, Mitchel JF, Asrin MA, et al.: Local delivery of heparin to balloon angioplasty sites with a new angiotherapy catheter: pharmacokinetics and effect on platelet deposition in the porcine model. Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn 1997,41:275–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Silva JA, Ramee SR: The emergence of mechanical thrombectomy; a clot burden reduction approach. Semin Interv Cardiol 2000, 5:137–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Wheisenant BK, Bairn DS, Kuntz RE, et al.: Rheolytic thrombectomy with the Possis AngioJet? Technical considerations and initial clinical experience. J Invasive Cardiol 1999, 11:421–426.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Silva JA, Ramee SR, Cohen DJ, et al.: Rheolytic thrombectomy during percutaneous revascularization for acute myocardial infarction: experience with the Angiojet catheter. Am Heart J 2001, 141:353–359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Rosenschein U, Roth A, Rassin T, et al.: Analysis of coronary ultrasound thrombolysis endpoints in acute myocardial infarction (ACUTE trial): results of the feasibility study. Circulation 1997, 95:1411–1416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Safian RD, May MA, Lichtenberg A, et al.: Detailed clinical and angiographic analysis of transluminal extraction coronary atherectomy for complex lesions in native coronary arteries.J Am Coll Cardiol 1995, 25:848–854.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 100a.
    Stone GW: X-sizer for treatment of thrombus and atherosclerosis in coronary interventions trial (X-TRACT) results. Presented at TCT, October 2002, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  102. 101.
    Hong MK, Popma JJ, Pichard AD, et al.: Clinical significance of distal embolization after transluminal extraction atherectomy in diffusely diseased saphenous vein grafts. Am Heart J 1994, 127:1496–1503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 102.
    Holmes DR Jr, Topol EJ, Califf RM, et al.: A multicenter, randomized trial of coronary angioplasty versus directional atherectomy for patients with saphenous vein bypass graft lesions: CAVEAT-II Investigators. Circulation 1995,91:1966–1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 103.
    Hong MK, Mehran R, Dangas G, et al.: Creatinine kinase-MB enzyme elevation following successful saphenous vein graft intervention is associated with late mortality. Circulation 1999, 100(24):2400–2405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 104.
    Campeau L, Lesperance J, Hermann J, et al.: Loss of the improvement of angina between 1 and 7 years after aortocoronary bypass surgery: correlations with changes in vein grafts and in coronary arteries. Circulation 1979, 60(2 pt 2):l-5.Google Scholar
  106. 105.
    Bourassa MG, Enjalbert M, Campeau L, et al.: Progression of coronary artery disease between 10 and 12 years after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. In Prognosis of Coronary Heart Disease: Progression of Coronary Arteriosclerosis. Edited by Roskamm H. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1983:150.Google Scholar
  107. 106.
    Frick MH, Valle M, Harjola PT: Progression of coronary artery disease in randomized medical and surgical patients over a 5-year angiographic follow-up. Am J Cardiol 1983, 52:681.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 107.
    Hwang MH, Meadows WR, Palac RT, et al.: Progression of native coronary artery disease at 10 years: insights from a randomized study of medical versus surgical therapy for angina. J Am Coll Cardiol 1990, 16:1066–1070.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 108.
    108.Corbelli J, Franco I, Hollman J, et al.: Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty after previous coronary artery bypass surgery. Am J Cardiol 1985, 56:398–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 109.
    Douglas JS Jr, Gruentzig AR, King SB III, et al.: Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in patients with prior coronary bypass surgery. J Am Coll Cardiol 1983, 2:745–754.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 110.
    Ernst SM, van der Feltz TA, Ascoop CA, et al.: Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in patients with prior coronary artery bypass grafting. Long-term results.J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1987, 93:268–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 111.
    Mathew V, Clavell AL, Lennon RJ, et al.: Percutaneous coronary interventions in patients with prior coronary artery bypass surgery: changes in patient characteristics and outcome during two decades. Am J Med 2000, 108:127–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 112.
    Morrison DA, Crowley ST, Veerakul G, et al.: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of saphenous vein grafts for medically refractory unstable angina. J Am Coll Cardiol 1994, 23:1066–1070.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 113.
    Stephan WJ, O’Keefe JH Jr, Piehler JM, et al.: Coronary angioplasty versus repeat coronary artery bypass grafting for patients with previous bypass surgery. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996, 28:1140–1146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 114.
    Gruberg L, Hong MK, Mehran R, et al.: In-hospital and long-term results of stent deployment compared with balloon angioplasty for treatment of narrowing at the saphenous vein graft distal anastomosis site. Am J Cardiol 1999, 84:1381–1384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 115.
    Plokker HW, Meester BH, Serruys PW: The Dutch experience in percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of narrowed saphenous veins used for aortocoronary arterial bypass. Am J Cardiol 1991, 67(5):361–366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 116.
    Pomerantz RM, Kuntz RE, Carrozza JP, et al.: Acute and long-term outcome of narrowed saphenous venous grafts treated by endoluminal stenting and directional atherectomy. Am J Cardiol 1992, 70:161–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 117.
    Waksman R, Popma JJ, Kennard ED, et al.: Directional coronary atherectomy (DCA): A report from the new approaches to coronary intervention (NACI) registry. Am J Cardiol 1997, 80(10A):50K-59K.Google Scholar
  119. 118.
    Waksman R, Weintraub WS, Ghazzal Z, et al.: Short- and long-term outcome of narrowed saphenous vein bypass graft: a comparison of Palmaz-Schatz stent, directional coronary atherectomy, and balloon angioplasty. Am Heart J 1997, 134(2 Pt 1):274–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 119.
    Braden GA, Xenopoulos NP, Young T, et al.: Transluminal extraction catheter atherectomy followed by immediate stenting in treatment of saphenous vein grafts. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997, 30(3):657–663.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 120.
    Dooris M, Hoffmann M, Glazier S, et al.: Comparative results of transluminal extraction coronary atherectomy in saphenous vein graft lesions with and without thrombus. J Am Coll Cardiol 1995, 25(7):1700–1705.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 121.
    Meany TB, Leon MB, Kramer BL, et al.: Transluminal extraction catheter for the treatment of diseased saphenous vein grafts: a multicenter experience. Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn 1995, 34:112–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 122.
    Misumi K, Matthews RV, Sun GW, et al.: Reduced distal embolization with transluminal extraction atherectomy compared to balloon angioplasty for saphenous vein graft disease. Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn 1996, 39:246–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 123.
    Moses JW, Maussa I, Popma JJ, et al.: Risk of distal embolization and infarction with transluminal extraction atherectomy in saphenous vein grafts and native coronary arteries. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 1999, 47:149–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 124.
    124.Safian RD, Grines CL, May MA, et al.: Clinical and angiographic results of transluminal extraction coronary atherectomy in saphenous vein bypass grafts. Circulation 1994, 89:302–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 125.
    Sketch MH, Davidson CJ, Yeh W, et al.: Predictors of acute and long-term outcome with transluminal extraction atherectomy: the new approaches to coronary intervention (NACI) registry. Am J Cardiol 1997, 80(10A):68K-77K.Google Scholar
  127. 126.
    Bittl JA, Sanborn TA, Yardley DE, et al.: Predictors of outcome of percutaneous excimer laser coronary angioplasty of saphenous vein bypass graft lesions. Am J Cardiol 1994, 74:144–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 127.
    Natarajan MK, Bowman KA, Chisholm RJ, et al.: Excimer laser angioplasty vs. balloon angioplasty in saphenous vein bypass grafts: quantitative angiographic comparison of matched lesions. Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn 1996, 38:153–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 128.
    Strauss BH, Natarajan MK, Batchelor WB, et al.: Early and late quantitative angiographic results of vein graft lesions treated by excimer laser with adjunctive balloon angioplasty. Circulation 1995, 92:348–356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 129.
    Savage MP, Douglas JS Jr, Fischman DL, et al.: Stent placement compared with balloon angioplasty for obstructed coronary bypass grafts: Saphenous Vein De Novo Trial Investigators. N Engl J Med 1997, 337:740–747.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 130.
    Bhargava B, Kornowski R, Mehran R, et al.: Procedural results and intermediate clinical outcomes after multiple saphenous vein graft stenting. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000, 35(2):389–397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 131.
    Brener SJ, Ellis SG, Apperson-Hansen C, et al.: Comparison of stenting and balloon angioplasty for narrowings in aortocoronary saphenous vein conduits in place for more than five years. Am J Cardiol 1997, 79(1):13–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 132.
    132.Fenton SH, Fischman DL, Savage MP, et al.: Long-term angiographic and clinical outcome after implantation of balloon-expandable stents in aortocoronary saphenous vein grafts. Am J Cardiol 1994, 74:1187–1191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 133.
    133.Frimerman A, Rechavia E, Eigler N, et al.: Long-term follow-up of a high risk cohort after stent implantation in saphenous vein grafts.J Am Coll Cardiol 1997, 30(5):1277–1283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 134.
    Herz I, Assali A, Adler Y, et al.: Coronary stent deployment without predilation: prevention of complications of venous graft angioplasty. Angiology 1998, 49(8):613–617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 135.
    Hong MK, Mehran R, Dangas G, et al.: Are we making progress with percutaneous saphenous vein graft treatment? J Am Coll Cardiol 2001, 38:150–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 136.
    Kornowski R, Mehran R, Hong MK, et al.: Procedural results and late clinical outcomes after placement of three or more stents in single coronary lesions. Circulation 1998, 97(14):1355–1361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 137.
    Le May MR, Labinaz M, Marquis JF, et al.: Predictors of long-term outcome after stent implantation in a saphenous vein graft. Am J Cardiol 1999, 83(5):681–686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 138.
    Maiello L, Colombo A, Gianrossi R, et al.: Favourable results of treatment of narrowed saphenous vein grafts with Palmaz-Schatz stent implantation. Eur Heart J 1994, 15:1212–1216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 139.
    Keeley EC, Velez CA, O’Neill WW, et al.: Long-term clinical outcome and predictors of major adverse cardiac events after percutaneous interventions on saphenous vein grafts.J Am Coll Cardiol 2001, 38:659–665.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 140.
    Wong SC, Bairn DS, Schatz RA, et al.: Immediate results and late outcomes after stent implantation in saphenous vein graft lesions: the multicenter U.S. Palmaz-Schatz stent experience. The Palmaz-Schatz Stent Study Group. J Am Coll Cardiol 1995, 26:704–712.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 141.
    Foley DP, Wijns W, Suryapranata H, et al.: Bypass graft angioplasty using the self-expanding, less-shortening Wallstent — results of the Wallstent CABG study. Eur Heart J 1997, 18(Suppl):157.Google Scholar
  143. 142.
    Safian RD, Kaplan B, Schreiber T, et al.: Interim results of the Wallstent endoprosthesis in saphenous vein graft trial (WINS). Circulation 1998, (Suppl I) 98:1–662.Google Scholar
  144. 143.
    Strauss BH, Serruys PW, Bertrand ME, et al.: Quantitative angiographic follow-up of the coronary Wallstent in native vessels and bypass grafts (European experience-March 1986 to March 1990). Am J Cardiol 1992, 69:475–481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 144.
    von Birgelen C, Airiian SG, de Feyter PJ, et al.: Coronary Wallstents show significant late, postprocedural expansion despite implantation with adjunct high-pressure balloon inflations. Am J Cardiol 1998, 82(2):129–134.Google Scholar
  146. 145.
    Caputo RP, Amin N, Marvasti M, et al.: Successful treatment of asaphenous vein graft perforation with an autologous vein-covered stent. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 1999, 48(4):382–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 146.
    Wong SC, Kent KM, Mintz GS, et al.: Percutaneous transcatheter repair of a coronary aneurysm using a composite autologous cephalic vein-coated Palmaz-Schatz biliary stent. Am J Cardiol 1995, 76:990–991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 147.
    Di Mario C, Inglese L, Colombo A: Treatment of a coronary aneurysm with a new polytetrafluoroethylene-coated stent: a case report. Cathet Cardiovasc Intervent 1999, 46:463–465.Google Scholar
  149. 148.
    Haager PK, Dechene A, Radke PW, et al.: Acute and long-term results with an endoluminal polytetrafluoroethylene stent graft in patients with in-stent restenosis and venous coronary artery bypass grafts. Circulation 1999, (Suppl I), 100(18):1–294.Google Scholar
  150. 149.
    Baldus S, Koster R, Eisner M, et al.: Treatment of aortocoronary vein graft lesions with membrane covered stents: a multicenter surveillance trial. Circulation 2000, 201:2024–2027.Google Scholar
  151. 150.
    Silva JA, White CJ, Collins TJ, Ramee SR: Morphologic comparison of atherosclerotic lesions in native coronary arteries and saphenous vein grafts with intracoronary angioscopy in patients with unstable angina. Am Heart J 1998, 136:156–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 151.
    Bourassa MG, Fisher LD, Campeau L, et al.: Long-term fate of bypass grafts: the coronary artery surgery study (CASS) and Montreal Heart Institute experiences. Circulation 1985, 72(Pt 2):V71-V78.Google Scholar
  153. 152.
    Fernandez-Ortiz A, Badimon JJ, Falk E, et al.: Characterization of the relative thrombogenicity of atherosclerotic plaque components: implications for consequences of plaque rupture. J Am Coll Cardiol 1994, 23:1562–1569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 153.
    Webb JG, Myler RK, Shaw RE, et al.: Coronary angioplasty after coronary bypass surgery: initial results and late outcome in 422 patients.J Am Coll Cardiol 1990, 16:812–820.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 154.
    Lefkovits J, Holmes DR, Califf RM, et al.: Predictors and sequelae of distal embolization during saphenous vein graft intervention from the CAVEAT-II trial: Coronary Angioplasty Versus Excisional Atherectomy Trial. Circulation 1995, 92:734–740.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 155.
    Webb JG, Carere RG, Virmani R, et al.: Retrieval and analysis of particulate debris after saphenous vein graft intervention.J Am Coll Cardiol 1999, 34(2):468–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 156.
    Teirstein PS, Mann JT, Cundey PE Jr, et al.: Low- versus high-dose recombinant urokinase for the treatment of chronic saphenous vein graft occlusion. Am J Cardiol 1999, 83(12):1623–1628.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 157.
    Carlino M, DeGregorio J, DiMario C, et al.: Prevention of distal embolization during saphenous vein graft lesion angioplasty: experience with a new temporary occlusion and aspiration system. Circulation 1999, 99(25):3221–3223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 158.
    Bairn DS, Wahr D, George B, et al.: Randomized trial of a distal embolic protection device during percutaneous intervention of saphenous vein aortocoronary bypass grafts. Circulation 2002, 105:1285–1290.Google Scholar
  160. 159.
    Ohki T, Roubin GS, Vieth FJ, et al.: Efficacy of a filter device in the prevention of embolic events during carotid angioplasty and stenting: an ex-vivo analysis.J Vasc Surg 1999, 30:1034–1044.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 160.
    Glazier JJ, Bauer HH, Kiernan FJ, et al.: Recanalization of totally occluded saphenous vein grafts using local urokinase delivery with the dispatch catheter. Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn 1995, 36:326–332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 161.
    Hartmann JR, McKeever LS, O’Neill WW, et al.: Recanalization of chronically occluded aortocoronary saphenous vein bypass grafts with long-term, low dose direct infusion of urokinase (ROBUST): a serial trial.J Am Coll Cardiol 1996, 27:60–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 162.
    Holmes DR Jr, Berger P: Percutaneous revascularization of occluded vein grafts: Is it still a temptation to be resisted? Circulation 1999, 99:8–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 163.
    Rosenschein U, Gaul G, Erbel R, et al.: Percutaneous transluminal therapy of occluded saphenous vein grafts: Can the challenge be met with ultrasound thrombolysis? Circulation 1999, 99(l):26–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gregory W. Barsness
  • John F. Bresnahan

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations