Peyronie’s Disease: Pathophysiology and Medical Therapy
Peyronie’s disease is an acquired benign condition with potential significant impact on quality of life that can include pain, penile deformity, and erectile dysfunction (ED). Modern studies have shown the disease to be prevalent. Once thought to resolve spontaneously, it is now known that the disease consists of an active phase and a mature phase, with resolution of pain and rarely resolution of penile deformity. The disease is now known to be caused by a “trapped” inflammatory response resulting from minor trauma, hematoma formation with fibrin deposition, and resultant cytokine activity. The cytokine transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-(β1) has demonstrated particular importance and is used in creating animal models to study the disease. This abnormal immune response may have a genetic predisposition. Modern molecular techniques, genomics, and proteomics are being applied to better understand the pathways that lead to Peyronie’s disease.
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