Potential infective and toxic microbiological hazards associated with the consumption of fermented foods

  • N. J. Rowan
  • J. G. Anderson
  • J. E. Smith


While the introduction and consumption of many solid-state fermented foods in developed countries are generally considered to be in their infancy (i.e. where these foods are often perceived as novel or exotic), fermented ethnic products, such as tempe, miso, tef injerra, togwa, ergo, rice tape, siljo etc., have been traditionally the principal source of nutrients for people residing in many developing countries world-wide. The traditional fermentation of cereal products widely practised in Africa and other developing countries usually involves a spontaneous development of different lactic acid-producing bacteria and the final bacteriological status of the product is influenced in part by the raw materials and process method (Steinkraus, 1983). This natural lactic fermentation process is considered to be an effective method of preserving these foods, thus providing the population with a safe nutritious food supply (Smith & Palumbo, 1983). Its use for safer weaning foods is discussed in Chapter 25.


Lactic Acid Bacterium Bacillus Cereus Starter Culture Fermented Food Acid Tolerance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aas, N., Gondrosen, B. & Langeland, G. (1992) Norwegian Food Control Authority’s Report on Food Associated Diseases in 1990, SNT Report 3, Oslo.Google Scholar
  2. Andersson, R. (1986) Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and spheroplasts of Gram-negative bacteria by an antagonistic compound produced by a strain of Lactobacillus plantarum. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 3, 149–60.Google Scholar
  3. Archer, D. (1984) Diarrhoeal episodes and diarrhoeal disease: acute disease with chronic implications. Journal of Food Protection, 47, 322–8.Google Scholar
  4. Archer, D. & Young, F. (1988) Contemporary issues: diseases with a food vector. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 1, 377–98.Google Scholar
  5. Arnold, K.W. & Kaspar, C.W. (1995) Starvation and stationary phase induced acid tolerance in Escherichia coli 0157:H7. Applied and Enviornmental Microbiology, 61, 2037–9.Google Scholar
  6. Aryanta, R.W., Fleet, G.H. & Buckle, K.A. (1991) The occurrence and growth of microorganisms during the fermentation of fish sausage. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 13, 143–56.Google Scholar
  7. Ashenafi, M. (1991) Growth of Listeria monocyto genes on fermenting tempeh made of various beans and its inhibition by Lactobacillus plantarum. Food Microbiology, 8, 303–10.Google Scholar
  8. Ashenafi, M. (1993) Fate of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium during the fermentation of ergo, a traditional Ethiopian sour milk. Ethiopian Medical Journal, 31, 91–8.Google Scholar
  9. Bacus, J.N. (1984) Utilisation of microorganisms in meat processing, in A Handbook for Meat Plant Operators, John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  10. Baik, H.S., Bearson, S., Dunbar, S. & Foster, J.W. (1996) The acid tolerance response of Salmonella typhimurium provides protection against organic acids. Microbiology-UK, 142, 3195–200.Google Scholar
  11. Baxter, E.D. (1996) The fate of ochratoxin A during malting and brewing. Food Additives and Contaminants, 13(supplement), 23–4.Google Scholar
  12. Berkowitz, F.E. (1994) The Gram-Positive bacilli: a review of the microbiology, clinical aspects, and antimicrobial susceptibilities of a heterogeneous group of bacteria. Paediatric and Infectious Diseases Journal, 13, 1126–38.Google Scholar
  13. Besser, R.E., Lett, S.M., Weber, J.T., Doyle, M.P., Barrett, T.J., Wells, J.G. & Griffin, P.H. (1993) An outbreak of diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome from Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in fresh-pressed apple cider. Journal of the American Medical Association, 269, 2217–20.Google Scholar
  14. Black, R.E., Levine, M.M., Clements, M.L., Hughes, T.P. & Blaser, M.J. (1988) Experimental Campylobacter infections in humans. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 157, 472–9.Google Scholar
  15. Bol, J. & Smith, J.E. (1990) Biotransformation of aflatoxin. Food Biotechnology, 3, 127–44.Google Scholar
  16. Bryan. F.L. (1979) Infections and intoxications caused by other bacteria, in Foodborne Infections and Intoxications, 2nd edn, (eds H. Riemann & F.L. Bryan), Academic Press, New York, pp. 211–97.Google Scholar
  17. Campbell-Platt, G. (1989) Fermented Foods of the World: A Dictionary and Guide, Butterworth, London.Google Scholar
  18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1994) Preliminary report: Escherichia coli 0157:H7 outbreak linked to commercially distributed dry-cured salami - Washington and California, 1994. Morbid Mortality Weekly Report, 44, 157–60.Google Scholar
  19. Chen, C.W. (1983) Interactions of diarrhoea and malnutrition - mechanisms and interventions, in Diarrhoea and Malnutrition (eds L.C. Chen & N.S. Scrimshaw), Plenum Press, New York, London, pp. 3–19.Google Scholar
  20. Cheville, A.M., Arhold, K.W., Buchrieser, C., Cheng, C.-M. & Kaspar, C.W. (1996) rpoS regulatin of acid, heat and salt tolerance in Escherichia coli 0157:H7. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 62, 1822–4.Google Scholar
  21. Cooks, P.E., Thomba, M. & Campbell-Platt, G. (1991) Growth of Bacillus cereus during rice tape fermentations. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 13, 78–81.Google Scholar
  22. Davis, M.J., Coote, P.J. & Obyme, C.P. (1996) Acid tolerance in Listeria monocytogenes - the adaptive tolerance response (ATR) and growth-phase-dependent acid resistance. Microbiology-UK, 142, 2975–82.Google Scholar
  23. Dirheimer, G. (1996) Mechanistic approaches to ochratoxin toxicity. Food Additives and Contaminants, 13, 45–8.Google Scholar
  24. Flannigan, B. (1996) Mycotoxins in malting and brewing, in Mycotoxins in Cereals: An Emerging Problem? (ed. J.P.F. D’Mello), Scottish Agricultural College, Edinburgh, pp. 45–55.Google Scholar
  25. Foster, J.W. & Hall, H.K. (1991) Induced pH homeostasis and the acid tolerance response of Salmonella typhimurium. Journal of Bacteriology, 173, 5129–35.Google Scholar
  26. Frisvad, J.C. (1986) Taxonomic approaches to mycotoxin identification (taxonomic indication of mycotoxin content in foods), in Modern Methods in the Analysis and Structural Fluidation of Mycotoxins (ed. R.J. Cole), Academic Press, New York, pp. 415–36.Google Scholar
  27. Frisvad, J.C. & Samson, R.A. (1991) Filamentous fungi in foods and feeds: ecology, spoilage and mycotoxin production, in Handbook of Applied Mycology, Vol. 3. Foods and Feeds (eds D.K. Arora, K.G. Mukerji & E.H. Marth), Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, pp. 31–68.Google Scholar
  28. Gahan, C G M, Odriscoll, B. & Hill, C. (1996) Acid adaptation of Listeria monocytogenes can enhance survival in acidic foods and during milk fermentation. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 62, 3128–32.Google Scholar
  29. Gashe, B.A. (1985) Involvement of lactic acid bacteria in the fermentation of tef (Eragrostis tef), and Ethiopian fermented food. Journal of Food Science, 50, 800–1.Google Scholar
  30. Gashe, B.A., Girma, M. & Besrat, A. (1982) Tef Fermentation. I. The role of microorganisms in fermentation and their effect on the nitrogen content of tef. SINET: Ethiopian Journal of Science, 5, 69–75.Google Scholar
  31. Gifawesen, C. & Besrat, R. (1982) Yeast flora of fermenting tef (Eragrostis tef) dough. SINET: Ethiopian Journal of Science, 5, 21–5.Google Scholar
  32. Girma, M. (1986) Microbiology of mayonnaise-based salads and cottage cheese varieties. MSc Thesis, University of East Anglia, UK.Google Scholar
  33. Girma, M., Gashe, B.A. & Lakew, B. (1989) The effect of fermentation on the growth and survival of Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in fermenting tef (Eragrostis tef). MIRCEN Journal, 5, 61–6.Google Scholar
  34. Glass, K.A., Loeffelholz, J.M., Ford, J.P. & Doyle, M.P. (1992) Fate of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 as affected by pH or sodium chloride, and in fermented dry sausage. Applied and Environ mental Microbiology, 58, 2513–16.Google Scholar
  35. Gorden, J. & Small, P.L.C. (1993) Acid resistance in enteric bacteria. Infectious Immunology, 61, 364–7.Google Scholar
  36. Gourama, H. & Bullerman, L.B. (1995) Antimycotic and antiaflatoxigenic effects of lactic acid bacteria: a review. Journal of Food Protection, 57, 1275–80.Google Scholar
  37. Granum, P.E. (1994) Bacillus cereus and its toxins. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 76, 615–65.Google Scholar
  38. Granum, P.E., Brynestad, S., & Kramer, J.M. (1993a) Analysis of enterotoxin production by Bacillus cereus from dairy products, food poisoning incidents and non-gastrointestinal infections. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 17, 269–79.Google Scholar
  39. Granum, P.E., Brynestad, S., O’Sullivan, K. & Nissen, H. (1993b) The enterotoxin from Bacillus cereus: production and biochemical characterisation. Netherlands Milk Dairy Journal, 47, 63–70.Google Scholar
  40. Groopman, J.D. (1994) Molecular dosimetry methods for assessing human aflatoxin exposures, in The Toxicology of Aflatoxin, Human Health, Veterinary and Agricultural Significance (eds D.L. Eatson & J.D. Groopman), Academic Press, New York, pp. 314–41.Google Scholar
  41. Gupta, S.K. & Venkitasubramanian, T.W. (1975) Production of aflatoxin on soybeans. Applied Microbiology, 29, 834–6.Google Scholar
  42. Hall, H.K. & Foster, J.W. (1996) The role of fur in the acid tolerance response of Salmonella typhimurium is physiologically and genetically separable from its role in iron acquisition. Journal of Bacteriology, 178, 5683–91.Google Scholar
  43. Hesseltine, C.W. (1988) Mycotoxins and alcohol production: a review, in Perspectives of Mycopathology (ed. A.W. Malhatra), Malhotra Publishing House, New Delhi, pp. 1–23.Google Scholar
  44. Hobbs, B.C. & Roberts, D. (eds) (1993a) Food Poisoning and Food Hygiene, 6th Edn, Edward Arnold, London.Google Scholar
  45. Hobbs, B.C. & Roberts, D. (1993b) Outbreaks of food poisoning and other food-borne disease, in Food Poisoning and Food Hygiene (eds B.C. Hobbs & D. Roberts), Edward Arnold Publishers, London, pp. 90–124.Google Scholar
  46. IARC (1993) Some naturally occurring substances, food items, and constituents, heterocyclic aromatic amines and mycotoxins, in IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Vol. 56, Lyons, International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  47. Ingram, J. (1987) Effect of temperature, pH, water activity, and pressure on growth, in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium: Cellular and Molecular Biology (ed. F.C. Neidhart), American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, pp. 1543–54.Google Scholar
  48. Jack, R.W., Tagg, J.R. & Ray, B. (1995) Bacteriocins of Gram-positive bacteria. Microbiological Reviews, 59, 171–200.Google Scholar
  49. Jacob, F., Lwoff, A., Siminoitch, A. & Wollman, E. (1953) Définition de quelque terms relatifs à la lysogénie. Ann ales d’Institut Pasteur (Paris), 84, 222–4.Google Scholar
  50. Jarvis, B. (1976) Mycotoxins in food, in Microbiology in Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (eds F.A. Skinner & J.G. Carr), Academic Press, London, pp. 251–67.Google Scholar
  51. Jay, J.M. (1992) Modern Food Microbiology, 4th edn, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  52. JHU/WHO (1989) Research on improving infant feed practices to prevent diarrhoea or reduce its severity: memorandum from a JHU/WHO meeting. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 67, 27–33.Google Scholar
  53. Kalchayanand, N., Hanilin, M.B. & Ray, B. (1992) Sublethal injury makes Gram negative and resistant Gram positive bacteria sensitive to the bacteriocins pediocin AcH and nisin. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 15, 239–43.Google Scholar
  54. Kim, W.J. (1996) Screening of bacteriogenic lactic acid bacteria and their antagonistic effects in sausage fermentation. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 6, 461–7.Google Scholar
  55. Kingamkono, R., Sjögren, E., Sranberg, U. & Kaijser, B. (1994) pH and acidity in lactic-fermenting cereal gruels: effects on viability of enteropathogenic microorganisms. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 10, 664–9.Google Scholar
  56. Klaenhammer, T.R. (1993) Genetics of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria. FEMS Microbiological Reviews, 12, 39–86.Google Scholar
  57. Kalayanamitr, A., Bhumiratana, A., Flegel, T.W., Glensukm, T. & Skinmyo, A. (1987) Occurrence of toxicity among protease, amylase and color mutants of a non-toxic soy sauce koji mold. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 53, 1980–2.Google Scholar
  58. Kuiper-Goodman, T. (1994) Prevention of human mycotoxicoses through risk assessment and risk management, in Mycotoxins in Grain: Compounds other than Aflatoxin (eds J.D. Miller & H.L. Trenholm), Eagon Press, St Paul, Minnesota, pp. 439–69.Google Scholar
  59. Kuiper-Goodman, T. (1996) Risk assessment of ochratoxin A: an update. Food Additives and Contaminants, 13(Supplement), 53–7.Google Scholar
  60. Leistner, L. (1984) Toxigenic penicillia occurring in feeds and foods: a review. Food Technology, Australia, 36, 404–6.Google Scholar
  61. Leistner, L. (1990) Mould-fermented foods: recent developments. Food Biotechnology, 4, 433–41.Google Scholar
  62. Lorri, W. & Svanberg, U. (1994) Lower prevalence of diarrhoea in young children using lactic-acid fermented cereal gruel. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 15, 57–63.Google Scholar
  63. Mata, L.J. (1971) Nutrition and infection. Protein Advisory Group Bulletin, 11, 18–21.Google Scholar
  64. Mertens, T.E. & Lowbeer, D. (1996) HIV and AIDS — where is the epidemic going? Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 74, 121–9.Google Scholar
  65. Mhalu, F.S. & Lyamuya, E. (1996) Human-immunodeficiency-virus infection and AIDS in East Africa — challenges and possibilities for prevention and control. East African Medical Journal, 73, 13–19.Google Scholar
  66. Miller, J.D. & Trenholm, H.L. (eds) (1994) Mycotoxins in Grains: Compounds other than Aflatoxin, Eagan Press, St Paul, Minnesota.Google Scholar
  67. Miller, L.G. & Kaspar, C.W. (1994) Escherichia coli 0157:H7 acid tolerance and survival in apple cider. Journal of Food Protection, 57, 460–4.Google Scholar
  68. Morgan, D., Newman, C.P., Hutchinson, D.N., Walker, A.M., Rowe, B. & Majid, F. (1993) Verotoxin producing Escherichia coli 0157 infections associated with the consumption of yoghurt. Epidemiological Infections, 11, 181–7.Google Scholar
  69. Moss, M.O. (1991) The environmental factors controlling mycotoxin formation, in Mycotoxins and Animal Foods (eds J.E. Smith & R.S. Henderson), CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, Fl., pp. 37–56.Google Scholar
  70. Motarjemi, Y., Käferstein, F., Moy, G. & Quevedo, F. (1993) Contaminated weaning food: a major risk factor in diarrhoea and associated malnutrition. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 71, 79–92.Google Scholar
  71. Mueller, G.P. & Williams, R.A. (1995) Surgical infections in AIDs patients. American Journal of Surgery, 169, 34–8.Google Scholar
  72. Nigatu, A. & Gashe, B.A. (1994) Inhibition of spoilage and food-borne pathogens by lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermenting tef (Eragrostis tef) dough. Ethiopian Medical Journal, 32, 223–9.Google Scholar
  73. Nout, M.J.R., Beirnick, G. & Bonants-Van Laarhoven, T.M.G. (1987a) Growth of Bacillus cereus in soybean tempeh. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 4, 293–302.Google Scholar
  74. Nout, M.J.R., de Dreu, M.A., Zuurbier, A.M. & Bonants-Van Laarhoven, T.M.G. (1987b) Ecology of controlled soybean acidification for tempe manufacture. Food Microbiology, 4, 165–72.Google Scholar
  75. O’Driscoll, B., Gahan, C.G.M. & Hill, C. (1996) Adaptive acid tolerance response in Listeria monocytogenes. Isolation of an acid-tolerance mutant which demonstrates increased virulence. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 62, 1693–8.Google Scholar
  76. O’Keefe, E.A. & Wood, R. (1996) AIDS in Africa. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 31, 147–52.Google Scholar
  77. Pestka, J.J. & Bondy, G.S. (1990) Alteration of immune function following dietary mycotoxin exposure. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 68, 1009–16.Google Scholar
  78. Pestka, J.J. & Bondy, G.S. (1994) Immunotoxic effects of mycotoxins, in Mycotoxins in Grain: Compounds other than Aflatoxin (eds J.D. Miller & H.L. Trendholm), Eagon Press, St Paul, Minnesota, pp. 339–58.Google Scholar
  79. Preluska, D.B., Rotter, B.A. & Rotter, R.G. (1994) Toxicology of mycotoxins, in Mycotoxins in Grain: Compounds other than Aflatoxin (eds J.D. Miller & H.L. Trenholm), Eagon Press, St Paul, Minnesota, pp. 359–403.Google Scholar
  80. Pugsley, A.P. (1984a) The ins and outs of colicins. I. Production and translocation across membranes. Microbiological Science, 1, 168–75.Google Scholar
  81. Pugsley, A.P. (1984b) The ins and outs of colicins. II. Lethal action, immunity and ecological implications. Microbiological Science, 1, 203–5.Google Scholar
  82. Quinn, T.C. (1996) Global burden of the HIV pandemic. Lancet, 348, 99–106.Google Scholar
  83. Rowan, N.J. (1996) Studies on the growth, survival, interaction and detection of potentially pathogenic Listeria and Bacillus species in infant milk formulae, PhD Thesis, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow.Google Scholar
  84. Rowe, B. (1987) Salmonella ealing associated with consumption of infant dried milk. Lancet, 10, 900–3.Google Scholar
  85. Russell, A.D. & Chopra, I. (1990) Understanding Antibacterial Action and Resistance, Ellis Horwood, New York.Google Scholar
  86. Samson, R.A. (1993) Taxonomy — current concepts of Aspergillus systematics, in Biotechnology Handbooks, Vol. 7. Aspergillus (ed. J.E. Smith), Plenum Press, New York, London, pp. 1–22.Google Scholar
  87. Samson, R.A. & Frisvad, J.C. (1991) Current taxonomic concepts in Penicillium and Aspergillus, in Cereal Grain, Mycotoxins, Fungi and Quality in Drying and Storage (ed. J. Chelkowski), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 405–39.Google Scholar
  88. Schlatter, C.H., Studer-Rohr, J. & Rasonyi, T.H. (1996) Carcinogenicity and kinetic aspects of ochratoxin A. Food Additives and Contaminants, 13, 43–4.Google Scholar
  89. Smith, J.E. & Henderson, R.S. (eds) (1991) Mycotoxins and Animal Foods, CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, Fl.Google Scholar
  90. Smith, J.E. & Moss, M.O. (1985) Mycotoxins: Formation, Analysis and Significance, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, New York.Google Scholar
  91. Smith, J.E., Solomons, G.L., Lewis, C.W. & Anderson, J.G. (1994) Mycotoxins in Human Nutrition and Health. Directorate-General XII, Science, Research & Development. EUR 16048EN.Google Scholar
  92. Smith, J.E., Solomons, G., Lewis, C. & Anderson, J.G. (1995) Role of mycotoxins in human and animal nutrition and health. Natural Toxins, 3, 187–92.Google Scholar
  93. Smith, J.L. & Palumbo, S.A. (1983) Use of starter cultures in meats. Journal of Food Protection, 46, 997–1006.Google Scholar
  94. Spelhaug, S. & Harlander, S.K. (1989) Inhibition of food-borne bacterial pathogens by bacteriocins from Lactococcus lactis and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Journal of Food Protection, 52, 856–62.Google Scholar
  95. Steinkraus, K.H. (1983) Handbook of Indigenous Fermented Foods, Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  96. Steyn, P.S. (1995) Mycotoxins, general view, chemistry and structure. Toxicology Letters, 82/83 843–51.Google Scholar
  97. Svanberg, U., Sjögren, E., Lorri, W., Svennerholm, A-M. & Kaijser, B. (1992) Inhibited growth of common enteropathogenic bacteria in lactic-fermented cereal gruels. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 8, 601–6.Google Scholar
  98. Sydenham, E.W., Shepherd, G.S., Gelderblom, W.C.A., Thiel, P.G. & Marasas, W.F.O. (1994) Fumonisins: their implications for human and animal health, in Occurrence and Significance of Mycotoxins (ed. K.A. Scudamore), Central Science Laboratory, London, pp. 42–8.Google Scholar
  99. Trucksess, M.W., Mislevec, P.B., Young, K., Bruce, V.E. & Page, S.W. (1987) Cyclopiazonic acid production by cultures of Aspergillus and Penicillium species isolated from dried beans, corn meal, macaroni and pecans. Journal of the Association of Analytical Chemists, 70, 123–6.Google Scholar
  100. Tunçel, G., Nout, M.J.R., Brimer, L. & Göktan, D. (1990) Toxicological, nutritional and microbiological evaluation of tempe fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus of bitter and sweet apricot seeds. International Journal of Food Microbiology,11, 337–44.Google Scholar
  101. Ujii, F. & Yokoyama, K. (1956) Studies in the bactericidal action of soy sauce for pathogenic bacteria. Reports of Food Sanitation, 6, 1.Google Scholar
  102. van Egmond, H.P. & Dekker, W.H. (1995) Worldwide regulations for mycotoxins in 1994. Natural Toxins, 3, 332–6.Google Scholar
  103. van Veen, A.G. (1967) The bongkrek toxins, in Biochemistry of Some Foodborne Microbial Toxins (eds R.I. Mateles & G.N. Wogen), M.I.P. Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. (cited in Steinkraus, K.H., Handbook of Indigenous Fermented Foods, p. 93).Google Scholar
  104. Vignolo, G.M., Suriani, F., de Ruiz Holgado, A.P. & Oliver, G. (1993) Antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus strains isolated from dry fermented sausages. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 75, 344–9.Google Scholar
  105. Weagant, S.D., Bryant, J.L. & Bark, D.H. (1994) Survival of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in mayonnaise-based sauces at room and refrigerated temperatures. Journal of Food Protection, 57, 629–31.Google Scholar
  106. Wong, H.-C. & Chen, Y.-L. (1988) Effects of lactic acid bacteria and organic acids on growth and germination of Bacillus cereus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 54, 2179–84.Google Scholar
  107. Yokotsuka, T. (1983a) Patterns of production and consumption of Japanese Shoyu, in Handbook of Indigenous Fermented Foods (ed. K.H. Steinkraus), Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, pp. 438–51.Google Scholar
  108. Yokotsuka, T. (1983b) Scale-up of traditional fermentation technology. Korean Journal of Applied Microbiology and Bioengineering, 11, 353–71.Google Scholar
  109. Yokotsuka, T., Sasaki, M., Kikuchi, T., Assao, Y. & Nabukora, A. (1966) Production of fluorescent compounds other than aflatoxin by Japanese industrial molds, in Biochemistry of Some Foodborne Microbial Toxins (eds R.I. Mateles & G.N. Wogan), MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., pp. 111–52.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Thomson Science 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. J. Rowan
  • J. G. Anderson
  • J. E. Smith

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations