The Common Cold

  • Roland A. Levandowski
Part of the Clinical Topics in Infectious Disease book series (CLIN.TOP.INFECT)


The common cold is one of several potential syndromes related to infection of the cells of the respiratory epithelium by any of a group of viruses. All of the viral respiratory syndromes are characterized by nasopharyngeal inflammation as a host response, but the common cold is distinguished from other syndromes by the predominance of symptoms of nasal discharge and obstruction and by the lack of significant temperature elevation (71,73). Although other names such as acute coryza or afebrile respiratory tract viral infection are synonomous with the term “common cold,” the latter persists and reinforces the erroneous lay notion that chilling of the body by exposure to moisture or cold temperatures contributes to the initiation of the illness. During the 20th century it has become clear that exposure of a susceptible person to respiratory virus can induce a cold regardless of the physical environment (3,38). The viruses associated with the common cold include the adenoviruses, the myxoviruses, and, most recently identified, the coronaviruses, but the majority of colds are associated with infection caused by one of the more than 100 serotypes of the rhinovirus (42,59–62,76,77,105,107,117). In spite of an understanding of the viral etiology, control measures are problematic. The ubiquity of the ailment and the susceptibility of virtually the entire population of the Earth to multiple respiratory viruses underscores the need for continued efforts in developing means and strategies for providing immunoprophylaxis, antiviral chemotherapy, and symptomatic relief.


Influenza Virus Respiratory Syncytial Virus Respiratory Virus Nasal Secretion Rhinovirus Infection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Almeida JD, Tyrrell DAJ: The morphology of three previously uncharacterized human respiratory viruses that grow in organ culture. J Gen Virol. 1967; 1:175–178.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anderson TO, Riff LJM, Jackson GG: Immunoelectrophoresis of nasal secretions collected during a common cold: Observations which suggest a mechanism of seroimmunity in viral respiratory infections. J Immunol. 1962; 89:691–697.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Andrewes CH: Adventures among viruses. III. Puzzle of common cold. N Engl J Med. 1950: 242:235–240.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Andrewes CH, Chaproniere DM, Gompels AEH, Pereira HG, Roden AT: Propagation of common cold virus in tissue cultures. Lancet. 1953; 2:546547.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Andrewes CH, Tyrrell DAJ, Stones HB, Beale AJ, Andrews RO, Edward DG, Goffe AP, Doggett JE, Homer RF, Crespi RS, Clements EMB: Prevention of colds by vaccination against a rhinovirus. Br Med J. 1965; 1:1344–1349.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Assad F, Cockburn WC: A seven-year study of WHO virus laboratory reports on respiratory viruses. Bull WHO. 1974; 51:437–445.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Badger GF, Dingle JH, Feller AE, Hodges RG, Jordan WS Jr, Rammelkamp CH Jr: A study of illness in a group of Cleveland families. Am J Hyg. 1953: 58:31–40,41–46,174–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Blair HT, Greenberg SB, Stevens PM, Bilunos PA, Couch RB: Effects of rhinovirus infection on pulmonary function of healthy human volunteers. Am Rev Resp Dis. 1976; 114:95–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Blok J, Air GM: Block deletions in the neuraminidase genes from some influenza A viruses of the Nl subtype. Virology. 1982; 118:229–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Borum P, Olsen L, Winther B, Mygind N: Ipratropium nasal spray: a new treatment for rhinorhea in the common cold. Am Rev Resp Dis. 1981: 123:418–420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Buckland FE, Tyrrell DAJ: Experiments on the spread of colds. I. Laboratory studies on the dispersal of nasal secretions. J Hyg (Camb). 1964;62:365–377.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cate TR, Couch RB, Johnson KM: Studies with rhinoviruses in volunteers, production of illness, effect of naturally acquired antibody, and demonstration of a protective effect not associated with serum antibody. J Clin Invest. 1964; 43:56–67.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cate TR, Couch RB, Fleet WF, Griffith WR, Gerone PJ, Knight V: Production of tracheobronchitis in volunteers with rhinovirus in a smallparticle aerosol. Am J Epidemiol. 1965; 81:95–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cate TR, Rossen RG, Douglas RG Jr, Butler WT, Couch RB: The role of nasal secretion and serum antibody in the rhinovirus common cold. Am J Epidemiol. 1966; 84:352–363.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cate TR, Douglas RG Jr, Johnson KM, Couch RB, Knight V: Studies on the inability of rhinovirus to survive and replicate in the intestinal tract of volunteers. Proc Soc Exp BioI Med. 1967; 124:1290–1295.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cate TR, Douglas RG Jr, Couch RB: Interferon and resistance to upper respiratory virus illness. Proc Soc Exp BioI Med. 1969; 131:631–636.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Calhoun AM, Jordan WSJr, Gwaltney JM Jr: Rhinovirus infections in an industrial population. V. Change in distribution of serotypes. Am J Epidemiol. 1974; 99:58–64.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chang T-W, Heel RC: Ribavirin and inosiplex: a review of their present status in viral diseases. Drugs. 1981; 22:111–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chanock RM, Parrot RH, Cook K, Andrews BE, Bell JA, Reichelderfer T, Kapikian AZ, Mastrota FM, Huebner RJ: Newly recognized myxovirus from children with respiratory disease. N Engl J Med. 1958; 258:207–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Choppin PW, Scheid A: The role of viral glycoproteins in adsorption, penetration and pathogenicity of viruses. Rev Infect Dis. 1980; 2:40–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Conant RM, Hamparian VV: Rhinoviruses: Basis for a numbering system. I. HeLa cells for propagation and serologic procedures. J Immunol. 1968; 100:107–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Conant RM, Hamparian VV: Rhinoviruses: Basis for a numbering system. II. Serologic characterization of prototype strains. J Immunol. 1968;. 100:114–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cooney MK, Hall CE, Fox JP: The Seattle virus watch. III. Evaluation of isolation methods and summary of infections detected by virus isolations. Am J Epidemiol. 1972; 96:286–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cooney MK, Kenney GE, Tam R, Fox JP: Cross relationships among 37 rhinoviruses demonstrated by virus neutralization with potent monotypic rabbit antisera. Infect Immun. 1973; 7:335–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cooney MK, Wise JA, Kenney GE, Fox JP: Broad antigenic relationships among rhinovirus serotypes revealed by cross-immunization of rabbits with different serotypes. J Immunol. 1975; 114:635–639.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Coulehan JL: Ascorbic acid and the common cold: Reviewing the evidence. Postgrad Med. 1979: 66:153–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    D’Alessio DJ, Peterson JA, Dick CR, Dick EC: Transmission of experimental rhinovirus colds in volunteer married couples. J Infect Dis. 1976; 133:28–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dick EC, Dick CR: Natural and experimental infections of nonhuman primates with respiratory viruses. Lab Anim Sci. 1974; 24:177–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dimmock NN, Tyrrell DAJ: Some physiocochemical properties of rhinoviruses. Br J Exp Pathol. 1964; 45:271–280.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dolin R, Reichman RC, Madore HP, Maynard R, Linton PN, Webber-Jones J: A controlled trial of amantadine and rimantadine in the prophylaxis of influenza A infection. N Engl J Med. 1982: 142:377–383.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Douglas RG Jr, Alford RH, Cate TR, Couch RB: The leukocyte response during viral respiratory illness in man. Ann Intern Med. 1966; 64:521–530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Douglas RG Jr, Cate TR, Gerone PJ, Couch RB: Quantitative rhinovirus shedding patterns in volunteers. Am Rev Resp Dis. 1966; 94:159–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Douglas RG Jr, Fleet WF, Cate TR, Couch RB: Antibody to rhinovirus in human sera. I. Standardization of a neutralization test. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1968; 127:497–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Douglas RG Jr: Pathogenesis of rhinovirus common cold in human volunteers. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1970; 79:563–571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Douglas RG Jr, Couch RB: Parenteral inactivated rhinovirus vaccine: Minimal protective effect. Proc Soc Exp BioI Med. 1972; 133:899–902.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Douglas RM, Albrecht JK, Miles HB, Moore BW, Read R, Worswick DA, Woodward AJ: Intranasal interferon alpha-2 prophylaxis of natural respiratory virus infection. J Infect Dis. 1985: 151:731–736.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dowling HF, Jackson GG, Inouye T: Transmission of the common cold in volunteers. II. The effect of certain host factors upon susceptibility. J Lab Clin Med. 1957; 50:516–525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dowling HF, Jackson GG, Spiesman IG, Inouye T: Transmission of the common cold to volunteers under controlled conditions. III. The effects of chilling of the subjects upon susceptibility. Am J Hyg. 1958; 68:59–65.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Eby GA, Davis DR, Halcomb WW: Reduction in duration of common colds by zinc gluconate lozenges in a double-blind study. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1984; 25:20–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fleet WF, Couch RB, Cate TR, Knight V: Homologous and heterologous resistance to rhinovirus common cold. Am J Epidemiol. 1965; 82:185–196.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fleet WF, Douglas RG Jr, Cate TR, Couch RB: Antibody to rhinovirus in human sera. II Heterotypic response. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1968: 127:503–509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fox JP, Cooney MK, Hall CE: The Seattle virus watch. V. Epidemiologic observations of rhinovirus infections, 1965–1969, in families with young children. Am J Epidemiol. 1975; 101:122–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Fox JP: Is a rhinovirus vaccine possible? Am J Epidemiol. 1976; 103:345–354.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Francis T Jr: A new type of virus from epidemic influenza. Science. 1940; 92:405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Fridy WW Jr, Ingram RH Jr, Hierholzer JC, Coleman MT: Airways function during mild viral respiratory illnesses: The effect of rhinoviruses on cigarette smokers. Ann Intern Med. 1974; 80:150–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gary GW Jr, Hierholzer JC, Black RE: Characteristics of noncultivable adenoviruses associated with diarrhea in infants: a new subgroup of human adenoviruses. J Clin Microbiol. 1979; 10:96–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Garrard CS, Levandowski RA, Gerrity TR, Yeates DB, Klein E: The effects of acute respiratory virus infection upon tracheal mucus transport. Arch Environ Health. 1985; 40:322–325.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Greenberg SB, Harmon MW, Couch RB, Johnson PE, Wilson SZ, Dasco CC, Bloom K, Quarles J: Prophylactic effect of low doses of human leukocyte interferon against infection with rhinovirus. J Infect Dis. 1982; 145:542–546.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gwaltney JM Jr, Hendley JO, Simon C, Jordan WS Jr: Rhinovirus infections in an industrial population. III. Number and prevalence of serotypes. Am J Epidemiol. 1968; 87:158–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gwaltney JM Jr, Hendley JO: Rhinovirus transmission: One if by air, two if by hand. Am J Epidemiol. 1978; 107:357–361.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gwaltney JM Jr, Moskalski PB, Hendley JO: Hand-to-hand transmission of rhinovirus colds. Ann Intern Med. 1978; 88:463–467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Gwaltney JM Jr, Moskalski PB, Hendley JO: Interruption of experimental rhinovirus transmission. J Infect Dis. 1980; 142:811–815.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Haff RF, Wohlsen B, Force EE, Stewart RC: Growth characteristics of two rhinovirus strains in WI-26 and monkey kidney cells. J Bacteriol. 1966; 91:2339–2342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hall CB, Walsh EE, Hruska JF, Betts RF, Hall WJ: Ribavirin treatment of experimental respiratory syncytial virus infection. JAMA. 1983: 249:2666–2670.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hamory BH, Hamparian VV, Conant RM, Gwaltney JM Jr: Human responses in two decavalent rhinovirus vaccines. J Infect Dis. 1975; 132:623629.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hamory BH, Hendley JO, Gwaltney JM Jr: Rhinovirus growth in nasal polyp organ culture. Proc Soc Exp BioI Med. 1977; 155:577–582.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hamory BH, Sande MA, Snydor A Jr, Seale DL, Gwaltney JM Jr: Etiology and antimicrobial therapy of acute maxillary sinusitis. J Infect Dis. 1979: 139:197–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hamparian VV, Ketler A, Hilleman MR: Recovery of new viruses (coryzaviruses) from cases of common cold in human adults. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1961; 158:444–453.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hamparian VV, Leagus MB, Hilleman MR: Additional rhinovirus serotypes. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1964; 116:976–984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hamparian VV: Rhinoviruses, in Lennette EH, Schmidt NJ (eds): Diagnostic Procedures for Viral, Rickettsial, and Chlamydial Infections., ed 5, Washington DC, American Public Health Association, 1979.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hamre D, Connelly AP Jr, Procknow JJ: Virologic studies of acute respiratory disease in young adults. III. Some biologic and serologic characteristics of seventeen rhinovirus serotypes isolated October, 1960 to June, 1961. J Lab Clin Med. 1964; 64:450–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hamre D, Connely AP Jr, Procknow JJ: Virologic studies of acute respiratory disease in young adults. IV. Virus isolations during four years of surveillance. Am J Epidemiol. 1966; 83:238–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hamre D: Rhinoviruses, JL Melnick (ed): in Monographs in Virology. vol 1, Basel, S Karger, 1968.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hayden FG, Hall WJ, Douglas RG Jr, Speers DM: Amantadine aerosols in normal volunteers: pharmacology and safety testing. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1979; 16:644–650.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hendley JO, Edmondson WP Jr, Gwaltney JM Jr: Relation between naturally acquired immunity and infectivity of two rhinoviruses in volunteers. J Infect Dis. 1972; 125:243–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hendley JO, Wenzel RP, Gwaltney JM Jr: Transmission of rhinovirus colds by self-inoculation. N. Engl J Med. 1973; 288:1361–1364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hendry RM, McIntosh K: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of respiratory syncytial virus infection: development and description. J Clin Microbiol. 1982; 16:324–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hilding A: The common cold. Arch Otolaryngol. 1930; 12:133–150.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hiti AL, Davis AR, Nayak DP: Complete sequence analysis shows that the hemagglutinin of the HO and H2 subtypes of human influenza virus are closely related. Virology. 1981; 111:113–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Holmes MJ, Reed SE, Stott EJ, Tyrrell DAJ: Studies of experimental rhinovirus type 2 infections in polar isolation and in England. J Hyg (Camb). 1976; 76:379–393.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jackson GG, Dowling HF, Spiesman IG, Boand AV: Transmission of the common cold to volunteers under controlled conditions. I. The common cold as a clinical entity. Arch Intern Med. 1958: 101:267–278.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Jackson GG, Dowling HF, Akers LW, Muldoon RL, VanDyke A, Johnson JC: Immunity to the common cold from protective serum antibody: Time of appearance, persistence, and relation to reinfection. N Engl J Med. 1962; 266:791–796.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Jackson GG, Dowling HF, Muldoon RL: Present concepts of the common cold. Am J Pub Health. 1962; 52:940–945.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Jackson GG: A perspective from controlled investigations on chemotherapy for viral respiratory infections. J Infect Dis. 1976; 133(suppl):A83-A92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Jordan WS Jr: The Mechanism of Spread of Asian Influenza. International Conference on Asian Influenza. Washington DC, National Institutes of Health, 1960.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kapikian AZ, Conant RM, Hamparian VV, Chanock RM, Chapple PJ, Dick EC, Fenters JD, Gwaltney JM Jr, Hamre D, Holper JC, Jordan WS Jr, Lennette EH, Melnick JL, Mogabgab WJ, Mufson MA, Phillips CA, Schieble JH, Tyrrell DAJ: Rhinoviruses: A numbering system. Nature. 1967; 213:761–762.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kapikian AZ, Conant RM, Hamparian VV, Chanock RM, Dick EC, Gwatney JM Jr, Hamre D, Jordan WS Jr, Kenney GE, Lennette EH, Melnick JL, Mogabgab WJ, Phillips CA, Schieble JH, Stott EJ, Tyrrell DAJ: A collaborative report: Rhinoviruses--extension of the numbering system. Virology. 1971; 43:524–526.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kendal AP, Dowdle WR, Noble GR: Influenza viruses, in Lennette EH, Balows A, Hausler WJ Jr, Shadomy HJ (eds): Manual of Clinical Microbiology. Ed 4. Washington DC, American Society for Microbiology, 1985.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kenney GE, Cooney MK, Thompson DJ: Analysis of serum pooling schemes for identification of large numbers of viruses. Am J Epidemiol. 1970; 91:439445.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Knight V, McClung HW, Wilson SZ, Waters BK, Quarles JM, Cameron RW, Griggs SE, Zerwas JM, Couch RB: Ribavirin small particle aerosol treatment of influenza. Lancet. 1981; 2:945–949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Knight V, Bloom K, Wilson SZ, Wilson RK: Amantadine aerosol in humans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1979; 16:572–578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Korant BD, Longberg-Holm K, LaColla P: Picornaviruses and togaviruses: targets for design of antivirals, in DeClercq E, Walker RT (eds): Targets for the Design of Antiviral Agents. New York, Plenum Press, 1984.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kruse W: Die Erreger von Husten und Schnupfen. Muenchen Med Wochenschr. 1914; 61:1547.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Levandowski RA, Pachucki CT, Rubenis M, Jackson GG: Topical enviroxime against rhinovirus infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1982: 22:1004–1007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Levandowski RA, Pachucki CT, Rubenis M: Specific mononuclear cell response to rhinovirus. J Infect Dis. 1983; 148:1125.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Levandowski RA: Rhinoviruses, in Belshe RB (ed): Textbook of Human Virology. New York, PSG Publications Inc., 1984.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Levandowski RA, Gerrity TR, Garrard CS: Modifications of lung clearance mechanisms by acute influenza A infection. J Lab Clin Med. 1985: 106:428–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Levandowski RA, Ou DW, Jackson GG: Acute phase decrease of T lymphocyte subsets in rhinovirus infection. J Infect Dis. 1986; 153:743–748.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Levine S: Polypeptides of respiratory syncytial virus. J Virol. 1977; 21:427–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Lewis FA, Kennet ML: Comparison of rhinovirus sensitive HeLa cells and human embryo fibroblasts for isolation of rhinoviruses from patients with respiratory disease. J Clin Microbiol. 1976; 3:528–532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lidwell OM, Sommerville T: Observations on the incidence and distribution of the common cold in a rural community during 1948 and 1949. J Hyg (Camb). 1951; 49:365–381.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Lidwell OM, Williams REO: The epidemiology of the common cold. J Hyg (Camb). 1961; 59:309–319, 321–334.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Liu C: Rapid diagnosis of human influenza infection from nasal smears by means of fluorosceinlabeled antibody. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1956; 92:883–887.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Lonberg-Holm K, Crowell RL, Philipson L: Unrelated animal viruses share receptors. Nature. 1976;. 259:679–681.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Lourenco RV, Stanley ED, Gatmaitan B, Jackson GG: Abnormal deposition and clearance of inhaled particles during upper respiratory viral infections. J Clin Invest. 1971; 50:62a.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    McClung HW, Knight V, Gilbert BE, Wilson SZ, Quarles JM, Divine GW: Ribavirin aerosol treatment of influenza B virus infection. JAMA. 1983; 249:2671–2674.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    McIntosh K, Clark JC: Parainfluenza and respira tory syncytial viruses, in Lennette EH, Balows A, Hausler WJ Jr, Shadomy HJ (eds): Manual of Clinical Microbiology. ed 4. Washington DC, American Society for Microbiology, 1985.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Melnick JL, Wenner HA, Phillips CA: Enteroviruses, in Lennette EH, Schmidt NJ (eds): Diagnostic Procedures for Viral, Rickettsial, and Chlamydial Infections. ed 5. Washington DC, American Public Health Association, 1979.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Merigan TC, Reed SE, Hall TS, Tyrrell DAJ: Inhibition respiratory virus infection by locally applied interferon. Lancet. 1973; 1:563–567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Minor TE, Dick EC, Peterson JA, Docherty DE: Failure of naturally acquired rhinovirus infections to produce immunity to heterologous serotypes. Infect Immun. 1974; 10:1192–1193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Minor TE, Dick EC, Baker JW, Ouellette JJ, Cohen M, Reed CE: Rhinovirus and influenza type A infections as precipitants of asthma. Am Rev Resp Dis. 1976; 113:149–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Mogabgab WJ, Pelon W: Problems in characterizing and identifying an apparently new virus found in association with mild respiratory disease in recruits. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1957; 67:403–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Monto AS, Johnson KM: A community study of respiratory infections in the tropics. II. The spread of six rhinovirus isolates within the community. Am J Epidemiol. 1968; 88:55–68.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Monto AS, Cavallaro JJ: The Tecumseh study of respiratory illness. IV. Prevalence of rhinovirus serotypes, 1966–1969. Am J Epidemiol. 1972;96:352–360.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Monto AS: The Tecumseh study of respiratory illness. V. Patterns of infections with parainfluenza viruses. Am J Epidemiol. 1973; 97:338–348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Monto AS, Bryan ER: Microneutralization test for detection of rhinovirus antibodies. Proc Soc Exp BioI Med. 1974; 145:690–694.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Monto AS, Lim SK: The Tecumseh study of respiratory illness. VI. Frequency and relationship between outbreaks of coronavirus infections. J Infect Dis. 1974; 129:271–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Recommendation of the immunization practices advisory committee: prevention and control of influenza. MMWR. 1985; 34:261–276.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Morris JA, Blount RE Jr, Savage RE: Recovery of a cytopathogenic agent from chimpanzees with coryza. Proc Soc Exp BioI Med. 1956; 92:544–549.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Mufson MA, Ludwig WM, James HD, Gould LW, Rourke JA, Holper JC, Chanock RM: Effect of neutralizing antibody on experimental rhinovirus infection. JAMA. 1963; 186:132–138.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Paul JH, Freese HC: An epidemiologic and bacteriologic study of the “common cold” in an isolated arctic community (Spitzbergen). Am J Hyg. 1933; 17:517–535.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Panusarn C, Stanley ED, Dirda VA, Rubenis M, Jackson GG: Prevention of illness from rhinovirus infection by a topical interferon inducer. N Engl J Med. 1974; 291:57–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Pelon W, Mogabgab WJ, Phillips IA, Pierce WE, Roth LW: A cytopathogenic agent isolated from naval recruits with mild respiratory illness. Proc Soc Exp BioI Med. 1957; 94:262–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Perkins JC, Tucker DN, Knopf HLS, Wenzel P, Hornick RB, Capikian AZ, Chanock RM: Evidence for protective effect of an inactivated rhinovirus vaccine administered by the nasal route. Am J Epidemiol. 1969; 90:319–326.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Phillpotts RJ, Jones RW, DeLong DC, Reed SE, Wallace J, Tyrrell DAJ: The activity of enviroxime against rhinovirus infection in man. Lancet. 1981; 1:1342–1344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Phillpotts RJ, Wallace J, Tyrrell DAJ, Freestone DS, Shepherd WM: Failure of 4’,6-dichloroflavan to protect against rhinovirus infection in man. Arch Virol. 1983; 75:115–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Phillips CA, Melnick JL, Grim CA: Rhinovirus infections in a student population: Isolation of five new serotypes. Am J Epidemiol. 1968; 87:447–456.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Pierce WE, Peckinpaugh RO, Frazier WE, Griffin JP, Greenberg BH, Jackson GG: Live and killed adenovirus vaccines for the prevention of acute respiratory disease in recruits. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1965; 5:55–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Potash L, Lees RS, Greenberger JL, Hoyrup A, Denney LD, Chanock RM: A mutant of parainfluenza type 1 virus with decreased capacity for growth at 38C and 39C. J Infect Dis. 1970; 121:640–647.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Price WH: The isolation of a new virus associated with respiratory clinical disease in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1956; 42:892–896.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Price WH:.Vaccine for the prevention in humans of cold like symptoms associated with the JH virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1957; 143:790–795.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Reed SE, Bynoe ML: The antiviral activity of isoquinolone drugs for rhinoviruses in vitro or in vivo. J Med Microbiol. 1970; 3:346–352.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Reed SE: An investigation of the possible transmission of rhinovirus colds through indirect contact. J Hyg (Camb). 1975; 75:249–258.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Reed SE, Craig JW, Tyrrell DAJ: Four compounds active against rhinovirus: Comparison in vitro and in volunteers. J Infect Di. 1976; 133(suppl):A128-A135.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Rossen RD, Butler WT, Cate TR, Szwed CS, Couch RB: Protein composition of nasal secretions during respiratory virus infection. Proc Soc Exp BioI Med. 1965; 119:1169–1176.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Rossen RD, Douglas RG Jr, Cate TR, Couch RB, Butler WT: The sedimentation behavior of rhinovirus neutralizing activity in nasal secretion and se rum following the rhinovirus common cold. J Immunol. 1966; 97:532–538.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Rowe WP, Huebner RJ, Gilmore LK, Parrott RH, Ward TG, Veder E: Isolation of a cytopathogenic agent from human adenoids undergoing spontaneous degeneration in tissue cultures. Proc Soc Exp BioI Med. 1953; 84:570–573.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Rowe WP, Huebner RJ, Hartley JW, Ward TG, Parrott RH: Studies of the adenoidal-pharyngealconjunctival (APC) group of viruses. Am J Hyg. 1955; 61:197–218.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Rueckert RR: On the structure and morphogenesis of picornaviruses, in Fraenkel-Conrat H, Wagner RR (eds): Comprehensive Virology., vol 6. New York, Plenum Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Scholtissek C, von Hayingen V, Rott R: Genetic relatedness between the new 1977 epidemic strain (H1N1) of influenza and human influenza strains isolated between 1947 and 1957 (H1N1). Virology. 1978; 89:613–617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Schwartz AR, Togo Y, Hornick RB, Tominaga S, Gleckman RA: Evaluation of the efficacy of ascorbic acid in prophylaxis of induced rhinovirus 44 infection in man. J Infect Dis. 1973; 128:500505.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Scott GM, Phillpotts RJ, Wallace J, Gauci CL, Greiner J, Tyrrell DAJ: Prevention of rhinovirus colds by human interferon alpha-2 from Escherichia coli. Lancet. 1982; 2:186–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Sherry B, Mosser AG, Colonno RC, Rueckert RR: Use of monoclonal antibodies to identify four neutralization immunogens on a common cold picornavirus, human rhinovirus 14. J Virology. 1986; 57:246–257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Shope T, Schwartz S, Monto A, Albrecht J: Intranasal interferon (SCH 30500) prevention of natural viral respiratory infection. Presented at the 24th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Washington DC, October 8–10, 1984. Abstract 1022.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Smith W, Andrewes CH, Laidlow PP,: A virus obtained from influenza patients. Lancet. 1933; 2:66.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Stanley ED, Jackson GG, Panusarn C, Rubenis M: Increased virus shedding with aspirin treatment of rhinovirus infection. JAMA. 1975; 128:1248–1251.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Stanley ED, Jackson GG, Dirda VA, Rubenis M: Effect of a topical interferon inducer on rhinovirus infections in volunteers. J Infect Dis. 1976; 133(suppl):A121-A127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Stenhouse AC: Rhinovirus infection in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: A controlled prospective study. Br Med J. 1967; 3:461–463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Stott EJ, Walker M: Antigenic variation among strains of rhinovirus type 51. Nature. 1969; 224: 1311–1312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Timonen T, Ortaldo JR, Herberman RB: Characteristics of human large granular lymphocytes and relationship to natural killer cells. J Exp Med. 1981;. 153:569–582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Turner RB, Hendley JO, Gwaltney JM Jr: Shedding of infected ciliated epithelial cells in rhinovirus colds. J Infect Dis. 1982; 145:849–853.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Tyrrell DAJ: Common cold viruses. Int Rev Exp Path. 1962; 1:209–242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Tyrrell DAJ, Chanock RM: Rhinoviruses: A description. Science. 1963; 141:152–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Tyrrell DAJ, Bynoe ML: Cultivation of a novel type of common-cold virus in organ cultures. Br Med J. 1968; 1:1467–1470.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Wright PF, Mills J, Chanock RM: Evaluation of a temperature-sensitive mutant of respiratory syncytial virus in adults. J Infect Dis. 1971; 124:505511.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Wright PF, Okabe N, McKee KT, Maassab HF, Karzon DT: Cold-adapted recombinant influenza A virus vaccines in seronegative young children. J Infect Dis. 1982; 146:71–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Wulff H, Noble GR, Maynard JE, Feltz ET, Poland JO, Chin TDY: An outbreak of respiratory infection in children associated with rhinovirus types 16 and 29. Am J Epidemiol. 1969; 90:304311.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Yolken RH, Torsch YM, Berg R, Murphy BR, Lee YC: Fluorometric assay for measurement of viral neuraminidase-application to the rapid detection of influenza virus in nasal wash specimens. J Infect Dis. 1980; 142:516–523.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Zerial A, Werner GH, Phillpotts RJ, Willmann JS, Higgins G, Tyrrell DAJ: Studies on 44 081 R.P., a new antirhinovirus compound, in cell cultures and in volunteers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1985; 27:846–850.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roland A. Levandowski

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations