Unclassified Viruses and Caliciviridae: Other Viruses Associated with Gastroenteritis
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Disease: Diarrhea and vomiting, gastroenteropathy, “astroenteritis,” “winter vomiting,” etc.
Etiologic Agents: Astro virus, calicivirus, Norwalk virus, small round virus(es) (SRVs), small round structured virus(es) (SRSVs), coronavirus(es).
Sources: Humans, directly (fecal, oral, droplet?) or indirectly (for example, by ingesting shellfish); at present animal sources seem unlikely, but cannot be excluded.
Clinical Manifestations: Diarrhea and vomiting, with or without mild fever, of short duration. May be endemic, epidemic, or originate from food-poisoning.
Pathology: Little known, but by analogy with other viruses, it is likely to include acute villous destruction and repair from undamaged crypts.
Laboratory Diagnosis: Demonstration of virus or viral antigen in feces by negative contrast electron microscopy or antibody-based tests (for Norwalk virus). No routine antibody tests are available, but when sought, antibody has been widely present.
Epidemiology: Endemic and/or epidemic throughout the world; more common in poorer and overcrowded areas. Some or perhaps all viruses transmitted in contaminated food (mostly raw shellfish) or water. Astroviruses occur most commonly in children younger than 5 years. Other viruses occur at any age.
Treatment: No specific treatment. Symptomatic, including oral rehydration, supplemented by parenteral fluids if necessary.
Prevention and Control: None other than care in the consumption of raw shellfish and maintenance of clean water supplies. No vaccines available.
KeywordsSmall Round Diarrhoea Virus Viral Gastroenteritis Fecal Extract Norwalk Virus
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