Unclassified Viruses and Caliciviridae: Other Viruses Associated with Gastroenteritis

  • Charles Richard Madeley


Disease: Diarrhea and vomiting, gastroenteropathy, “astroenteritis,” “winter vomiting,” etc.

Etiologic Agents: Astro virus, calicivirus, Norwalk virus, small round virus(es) (SRVs), small round structured virus(es) (SRSVs), coronavirus(es).

Sources: Humans, directly (fecal, oral, droplet?) or indirectly (for example, by ingesting shellfish); at present animal sources seem unlikely, but cannot be excluded.

Clinical Manifestations: Diarrhea and vomiting, with or without mild fever, of short duration. May be endemic, epidemic, or originate from food-poisoning.

Pathology: Little known, but by analogy with other viruses, it is likely to include acute villous destruction and repair from undamaged crypts.

Laboratory Diagnosis: Demonstration of virus or viral antigen in feces by negative contrast electron microscopy or antibody-based tests (for Norwalk virus). No routine antibody tests are available, but when sought, antibody has been widely present.

Epidemiology: Endemic and/or epidemic throughout the world; more common in poorer and overcrowded areas. Some or perhaps all viruses transmitted in contaminated food (mostly raw shellfish) or water. Astroviruses occur most commonly in children younger than 5 years. Other viruses occur at any age.

Treatment: No specific treatment. Symptomatic, including oral rehydration, supplemented by parenteral fluids if necessary.

Prevention and Control: None other than care in the consumption of raw shellfish and maintenance of clean water supplies. No vaccines available.


Small Round Diarrhoea Virus Viral Gastroenteritis Fecal Extract Norwalk Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1988

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  • Charles Richard Madeley

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