Phenomenology of Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia

  • Panagiotis Zis
  • Kallol Ray Chaudhuri
  • Michael SamuelEmail author


Levodopa has been effective against the motor features of Parkinson’s disease for several decades. However, it is observed that long-term treatment with levodopa can be complicated by the development of various types of response fluctuations as well as dyskinesias. The latter, once established, tend to remain persistent although they can be reduced by some pharmacological and neurosurgical manipulations. These situations can lead to a significant source of disability, and their treatment options require significant expertise and costs. Therefore, efforts are made to minimize or prevent the appearance of long-term dyskinesia and fluctuations. In this chapter, we will consider the phenotypes of levodopa-induced dyskinesias.


Levodopa-induced dyskinesia Phenomenology Levodopa Dyskinesia On-off 



The authors are grateful to Dr Davide Martino MD, PhD, King’s College Hospital, King’s Health Partners, London, for critical review of this chapter.

Supplementary material

Video 1.1

Peak dose (“ON”) leg and arm dyskinesia, while sitting, mainly choreic movement. On standing, some right arm additional dystonia (Video editing was kindly performed by Dr Veronica Bruno and Dr Tom Johnston) (MP4 1951 kb)

Video 1.2

Peak dose (“ON”) neck chorea, while walking. Some arm chorea (Video editing was kindly performed by Dr Veronica Bruno and Dr Tom Johnston) (MP4 5734 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Panagiotis Zis
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kallol Ray Chaudhuri
    • 1
  • Michael Samuel
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Neurology, National Parkinson Foundation International Centre of ExcellenceKing’s College Hospital, King’s Health PartnersLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyEvangelismos General HospitalAthensGreece
  3. 3.East Kent Hospitals NHS Foundation TrustWilliam Harvey HospitalAshfordUK

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