Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO)
A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is an anatomical communication between two atria with a possibility for right-to-left shunt. PFO is a flap-like opening between the atrial septa primum and secundum at the site of the fossa ovalis that persists after 1 year of age. In utero, the foramen ovale helps as a physiologic conduit for right-to-left shunting. After birth, once the pulmonary circulation is established, left atrial (LA) pressure increases, permitting functional closure of the foramen ovale. This is followed by an anatomical closure by the age of 1 year [1, 2].
KeywordsPatent foramen ovale (PFO) Fossa ovalis Atrial septum pimum Atrial septum secundum Contrast echocardiography Transient ischemic attack (TIA)
PFO in transesophageal echocardiography by 2D study in the middle area of the inter-atrial septum (MPG 4856 kb)
PFO in transesophageal echocardiography by color flow imaging (MPG 978 kb)
Agitated-saline injection into an ante-cubital vein showing many bubble passage from interatrial septum within three cardiac cycles of their appearance in the RA suggestive of PFO (MPG 4688 kb)
- 6.Maffe S, Dellavesa P, Zenone F, et al. Transthoracic second harmonic two- and three-dimensional echocardiography for detection of patent foramen ovale. J Am Coll Cardiol Intv. 2010;3(9):968–73.Google Scholar