Isolated Ventricular Septal Defect

  • Azin AlizadehaslEmail author
  • Anita Sadeghpour
  • Mitra Chitsazan


Ventricular septal defect (VSD), as the most common congenital heart disease (CHD) at birth [1], is found less in older infants and in the adults since most of small VSDs will close spontaneously over the time [2, 3].


Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) Perimemberanous Sub-arterial VSD Muscular VSD Echocardiography 

Supplementary material

Video 22.1

Transthoracic echocardiography in 4 chamber view showing multiple mid muscular VSD (Swiss cheese septum) associated with left heart enlargement (AVI 13,576 kb)

Video 22.2

Left heart cardiac catheterization, LV injection shows subaortic VSD (WMV 194 kb)

Video 22.3

Percutaneous closure of VSD with no residual VSD after successful percutaneous VSD closure (WMV 2,973 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Azin Alizadehasl
    • 1
    Email author
  • Anita Sadeghpour
    • 2
  • Mitra Chitsazan
    • 3
  1. 1.Echocardiography Lab, Department of CardiologyRajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Iran University of Medical ScienceTehranIran
  2. 2.Echocardiography Lab, Department of CardiologyAdult Congenital Heart Disease Clinic, Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Iran University of Medical ScienceTehranIran
  3. 3.Research LabRajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research CenterTehranIran

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