How Do Users Manipulate Graphical Icons? An Empirical Study
According to  pointing one’s finger at a graphical object then at an empty location on the screen while saying “Put this here,” are semiotic gestures, since they contribute to the meaning of the concomitant utterance. On the other hand, dragging one’s fingertip on the surface of the screen may be termed an ‘ergotic’ gesture, inasmuch as it represents an action, namely the drawing of a 2D graphic or the moving of an icon, according to the current context.
We have conducted a Wizard of Oz experiment on the spontaneous use of speech and 2D gestures for interacting with standard graphical software. Overall results [9, 6, 2] indicate that, in such contexts, hand gestures are used either for pointing at objects and locations on the screen or for acting on a 2D representation of the application.
Our study of the subjects’ multimodal expression being completed, we have now focused our analysis on their use of gestures. We aim at defining useful criteria for the design of gestural human-computer interaction. In this paper, we present user profiles that were defined from a thorough analysis of the subjects’ gestures.
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