Replicas, Shadowing, and Negative Staining

  • Michael J. Dykstra
  • Laura E. Reuss


Contrast in transmission electron microscopic (TEM) specimens occurs when there are specimen areas that stop (scatter) electrons and also areas that let most of the electrons pass through. Thus, the image results from subtractive contrast. We impregnate tissues and sections with a variety of heavy metals to scatter electrons as discussed in Chapter 4, but we can also Surround particulates with heavy metals (negative staining) or cover particulates, cells, and tissues with thin metal films that have areas of differential beam-stopping capability (replicas produced by shadowing). This chapter will discuss these two added techniques for building subtractive contrast, pointing out the commonly used techniques and a few remedies to specific problems that may be encountered.


Negative Staining Ammonium Molybdate Phosphotungstic Acid Vacuum Evaporator Rotary Pump 
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Copyright information

© Michael J. Dykstra 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael J. Dykstra
    • 1
  • Laura E. Reuss
    • 1
  1. 1.North Carolina State UniversityUSA

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