Advertisement

What is the Use of Bologna in National Reform?

The Case of Norwegian Quality Reform in Higher Education
  • Ǻse Gornitzka
Part of the Higher Education Dynamics book series (HEDY, volume 12)

Few national higher education systems or policies can claim to operate in total isolation from their international environment. Systemic changes and policy shifts in higher education are linked in various ways to what is happening in the international arena, as well as to developments in other national systems. This chapter discusses one such linkage; it explores how a process of higher education policy co- operation at the European level, the Bologna Process, has impacted in practice on the comprehensive reform of Norwegian higher education of the late 1990s and the beginning of this century known as the Quality Reform; and questions the extent to which the reform proposals that are part of the Quality Reform are a response to the Bologna Process, and how ‘Bologna’ was used in the context of this national reform.

The Norwegian higher education system is located on the northern periphery of Europe. Given this location and the ongoing Europeanisation of higher education, the Norwegian government and other stakeholders concerned with higher education are putting increasing political emphasis on the importance of internationalising higher education, and especially on strengthening its ties with Europe. In this the Bologna Process, being a part of the Europeanisation development, has received considerable attention. An important assumption in this chapter is that the nature of the peripheral status of Norway might have conditioned the use, and therefore ultimately the effects of the Bologna Process in the Norwegian Quality Reform.

Keywords

High Education High Education System High Education Policy European High Education Area Degree Structure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

8. References

  1. Aamodt, P. O. (2003) Quality or Efficiency? Perspectives on a Norwegian Reform on higher education. Paper presented at the 16th annual CHER conference. Porto, 4-6 September 2003.Google Scholar
  2. Aberbach, J. and T. Christensen (2003) Translating theoretical ideas into modern state reform. Economic-inspired reforms and competing models of governance. Administration and Society. 35(5), pp. 491-509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Böllhoff, D. (2002) The New Regulatory Regime: The Institutional Design of Telecommunications Regulation at the National Level. In A. Héretier (ed.) Common Goods—Reinventing European and International Governance. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
  4. Callon, M. (1986) Some elements of a sociology of translation: the domestication of the scallops and the fishermen of St. Brieuc bay. In J. Law (ed.): Power, Action and Belief: A New Sociology of Knowledge? London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  5. Cohen, M. D, J. G. March and J. P. Olsen. (1972) A Garbage Can Model of Organizational Choice. Administrative Science Quarterly 17(1):1-25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Czarniawska, B. and C. Joerges (1998) Winds of Organizational Change: How Ideas Translate into Objects and Actions. In N. Brunsson and J. P. Olsen (eds.) Organizing Organizations. Bergen: Fagbokforlaget.Google Scholar
  7. Czarniawska, B. and G. Sévon (eds.) (1996) Translating Organizational Change. Berlin: de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  8. Dolowitz, D. P. and D. Marsh. (2000) Learning from Abroad: The Role of Policy Transfer in Contemporary Policy-Making. Governance: An International Journal of Policy and Administration 13(1), pp. 5-24.Google Scholar
  9. Dybesland, H. (2000) Gradsstruktur og gradssystem: en komparativ studie. Oslo: NIFU skriftserie nr.10/2000.Google Scholar
  10. EURYDICE (2003) Focus on the Structure of Higher Education in Europe—2003/04 National Trends in the Bologna Process. Brussels: EURYDICE.Google Scholar
  11. Forr, G. (2000) Vivat Academica, Dagbladet 28.4.2000.Google Scholar
  12. Giske, T. (2001) Kunnskapens Europa, Aftenposten 12.07.01.Google Scholar
  13. Gornitzka, Å. (ed.) (2003) Kvalitet i norsk høyere utdanning i et internasjonalt perspektiv, Oslo: NIFU skriftserie 25/2003.Google Scholar
  14. Hackl, E. (2001) The Intrusion and Expansion of Community Policies in Higher Education Higher Education Management 13(3), pp. 99-117.Google Scholar
  15. Hansen, L. I. and G. Midré (2000) Frihet’ til å styres av markedskreftene, Aftenposten 17.07.00.Google Scholar
  16. KUF (1991) Fra visjon til virke. Report to the Storting. Ministry of Church, Education and Research. St. melding 40 (1990-91).Google Scholar
  17. KUF (1999) Research at the beginning of a new era Report to the Storting, Ministry of Church, Education and Research. St. melding No. 39 (1998-99).Google Scholar
  18. KUF (2001) Gjør din plikt—krev din rett. Kvalitetsreform av høyere utdanning. Report to the Storting, Ministry of Church, Education and Research. St. melding 27 (2000- 2001).Google Scholar
  19. Lægreid, P., Roness, P. G. (1999) Administrative Reform as Organized Attention In: M. Egeberg and P. Lægreid (Eds.) Organizing Political Institutions—Essays for Johan P. Olsen. Oslo: Scandinavian University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Latour, B. (1987) Science in Action. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Maassen, P., Uppstrøm, T. M. (2004) Internationalization of higher education in Northern Europe in the light of Bologna—Rethinking Nordic cooperation in higher education. Oslo: NIFU STEP Rapport 8/2004.Google Scholar
  22. March, J. G., Olsen, J. P. (1976) Ambiguity and Choice in Organizations. Bergen: Norwegian University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Neave, G. (2003) The Bologna Declaration: Some of the Historic Dilemmas Posed by the Reconstruction of the Community in Europe’s Systems of Higher Education. Educational Policy 17(1), pp. 41-164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. NOU (1988) Med viten og vilje. (Commissioned Report on higher education from “the Hernes Commission”) Oslo: Norges offentlige utredninger NOU 1988: 28.Google Scholar
  25. NOU (2000) Frihet med ansvar. Om høgre utdanning og forskning i Norge. (Freedom with Responsibility—On higher education and research in Norway). (Commissioned Report from “the Mjøs Commission”) Oslo: Norges offentlige utredninger NOU 2000: 14.Google Scholar
  26. NOU (2003) Ny lov om universiteter og høgskoler (Comissioned Report from Government Appointed University and College Act Committee) Oslo: Norges offentlige utredninger NOU 2003(25).Google Scholar
  27. Nyborg, P. (2003) Higher Education as Public Good and a Public Responsibility. Higher Education in Europe. XXVIII(3), pp. 355-359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. OECD (1998) Redefining Tertiary Education. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  29. Olsen, J. P. (2000) Organisering og styring av universiteter. En kommentar til Mjøs- utvalgets reformforslag. Nytt Norsk Tidsskrift 3/2000, pp. 231-250.Google Scholar
  30. Olsen, J. P. (2002) The Many Faces of Europeanization. Journal of Common Market Studies 40(5), pp. 921-952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Olsen, J. P., Peters, B. G. (1996) Lessons from Experience. Experiential Learning in Administrative Reforms in Eight Democracies. Oslo: Scandinavian University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Olsen, J. P. and B. O. Sverdrup (1998) Europa i Norden. In J.P. Olsen and B.O. Sverdrup (eds.) Europa i Norden—Europeisering av nordisk samarbeid. Oslo: Tano Aschehoug.Google Scholar
  33. RCN (2000) Internasjonalisering av norsk forskning—Utfordringer, anbefalinger og tiltak. Oslo: Norges forskningsråd 2000 (Research Council of Norway).Google Scholar
  34. RCN (2000a) Mot en grenseløs forskningspolitikk? Oslo: Norges forskningsråd 2000 (Research Council of Norway).Google Scholar
  35. RCN (2000b) Om norsk deltakelse i internasjonalt forskningssamarbeid—Noen hovedtrekk. Oslo: Norges forskningsråd 2000 (Research Council of Norway).Google Scholar
  36. RCN (2003) Forskermobilitet til Norge. Oslo: Norges forskningsråd 2003 (Research Council of Norway).Google Scholar
  37. Slagstad, R. (2000) Kunnskapens hus i det norske system. Appendix I to NOU 2000.Google Scholar
  38. Simmonds, P., Teather, S., Östling, A. (2001) RCN and International Research Cooperation. Background report No 6 in the evaluation of the Research Council of Norway Brighton: Technopolis Ltd. December 2001.Google Scholar
  39. Sivertsen, G., Smeby J.-C. (2001) Den nordiske overenskomsten om adgang til høgre utdanning—Et diskusjonsgrunnlag. København: Nordisk Ministerråd (Nordic Council of Ministers) Høgre Utdanning ANP 2001:722.Google Scholar
  40. Stensaker, B. (2003) The emerging system of accreditation in Norway—Need-driven or solution-driven change? Paper presented to the EIE-GEW Forum, 10-12 April, Harnack House, Berlin.Google Scholar
  41. Stensaker, B. (2004) The Transformation of Organisational Identities. Interpretations of policies concerning the quality of teaching and learning in Norwegian higher education. Enschede: CHEPS/UT.Google Scholar
  42. Trondal, J., Smeby, J.-C. (2001) Norsk forskning i verden. Oslo: NIFU Skriftserie 17/2001.Google Scholar
  43. UFD (2003) The Quality Reform—A reform in Norwegian higher education. Information leaflet from The Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research: Oslo.Google Scholar
  44. Wendt, K. (2003) Participation of ‘the Periphery’ in international research collaboration—based on Norwegian experiences. Paper presented at 7th International Conference on Technology Policy and Innovation. Monterrey, Mexico, 10-13 June 2003.Google Scholar
  45. Wiers-Jenssen, J. (2003) Over bekken etter vann? Hvorfor studere i utlandet når det finnes lignende tilbud i Norge. Oslo: NIFU Skriftserie nr. 26/2003.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ǻse Gornitzka
    • 1
  1. 1.Arena–Centre for European StudiesUniversity of OsloNorway

Personalised recommendations