The western fringe of the Iberian peninsula was inhabited from at least 8000 BC by Neolithic peoples known as Iberians. Archaeological evidence points to the arrival of Celtic tribes in the north and west of the peninsula in the first millennium BC and the establishment of Phoenician settlements in the southwest around Cadiz from around 800 BC. From 241 BC the Iberian peninsula came under the influence of Carthage, and then Rome after 206 BC. The Romans made their way north to what is now central Portugal and clashed with a Celtic federation, the Lusitanians. They resisted the Roman advance under their leader Viriathus until he was killed in 140 BC, after which the Romans were able to move north across the Douro river. In 25 BC Augustus founded Augustus Emirita (now Mérida) as the capital of Lusitania.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Instituto Nacional de Estatística. AnuárioEstatistico de Portugal/Statistics Year-Book.—Estatísticas do Comércio Externo. 2 vols. Annual from 1967Google Scholar
- Birmingham, David, A Concise History of Portugal. CUP, 1993Google Scholar
- Page, Martin, The First Global Village: How Portugal Changed the World. Editorial Notícias, Lisbon, 2002Google Scholar
- Saraiva, J. H., Portugal: A Companion History. Manchester, 1997Google Scholar
- Wheeler, D. L., Historical Dictionary of Portugal. Metuchen (NJ), 1994Google Scholar
- National library: Biblioteca Nacional de Lisboa, Campo Grande 83, 1749–081 Lisbon.Google Scholar
- National Statistical Office: Instituto Nacional de Estatística (INE), Avenida António José de Almeida, 1000–043 Lisbon.Google Scholar
- Website: http://www.ine.pt