• Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


The Neolithic settlement of Mehrgarh in Balochistan, western Pakistan dates from around 7000 BC. Continuously occupied for over 4,000 years, it was a precursor to the Indus Valley civilization, which flourished between 3300 and 1700 BC. Indus Valley settlements spread across much of present-day Pakistan and northwest India, from the Arabian Sea to the foothills of the Himalayas, centring on the cities of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. The civilization’s decline coincided with the arrival of Indo-European-speaking tribes, including the Aryans, from central Asia. Taxila in northern Pakistan became a centre for the development of Vedic/Hindu culture from the 6th century BC.


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Further Reading

  1. Federal Bureau of Statistics.—Pakistan Statistical Yearbook.—Statistical Pocket Book of Pakistan. (Annual)Google Scholar
  2. Ahmed, A. S., Jinnah, Pakistan and Islamic Identity: The Search for Saladin. London, 1997Google Scholar
  3. Ahsan, A., The Indus Saga and the Making of Pakistan. Oxford, 1997Google Scholar
  4. Akhtar, R., Pakistan Year Book. Karachi/LahoreGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhutto, B., Daughter of the East. London, 1988Google Scholar
  6. Burki, S. J., Pakistan: the Continuing Search for Nationhood. 2nd ed. Boulder (Colo.), 1992Google Scholar
  7. Cohen, Stephen Philip, The Idea of Pakistan. Brookings Institution Press, Washington, D.C., 2006Google Scholar
  8. James, W. E. and Roy, S. (eds.) The Foundations of Pakistan’s Political Economy: Towards an Agenda for the 1990s. London, 1992Google Scholar
  9. Joshi, V. T., Pakistan: Zia to Benazir. Delhi, 1995Google Scholar
  10. Khan, Hamid, Constitutional and Political History of Pakistan. Oxford Univ. Press, 2005Google Scholar
  11. Malik, I. H., State and Civil Society in Pakistan: the Politics of Authority, Ideology and Ethnicity. London, 1996Google Scholar
  12. Paul, T. V., The India-Pakistan Conflict: An Enduring Rivalry. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ziring, Lawrence, Pakistan in the 20th Century: A Political History. Oxford Univ. Press, Karachi, 2004Google Scholar
  14. National library: National Library of Pakistan, Constitution Avenue, Islamabad.Google Scholar
  15. National Statistical Office: Federal Bureau of Statistics, 5-SLIC Bldg., F-6/4, Blue Area, Islamabad.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

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