Egyptian control was established over Semitic Amorite tribes in the Jordan valley in the 16th century BC. However, Egypt’s conflict with the Hittite Empire allowed the development of autonomous kingdoms such as Edom, Moab, Gilead and Ammon (centred on modern Amman). The Israelites settled on the east bank of the Jordan in the 13th century and crossed into Canaan. David subjugated Moab, Edom and Ammon in the 10th century but the Assyrians wrested control in the 9th century, remaining until 612 BC. Nabataea expanded in the south during the Babylonian and Persian periods until conquered for Rome by Pompey in the 1st century BC. After Trajan’s campaign of AD 106, the Jordan area was absorbed as Arabia Petraea.
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