In 1920 Azerbaijan was proclaimed a Soviet Socialist Republic. From 1922, with Georgia and Armenia, it formed the Transcaucasian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic. Conflict with Armenia over the enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh escalated in 1988, leading to violent expulsions of Armenians in Azerbaijan and Azeris in Armenia. In ‘Black January’ 1990 Soviet tanks moved in to react to rioting in Baku, and over 100 civilians were killed. War broke out between the two countries in 1992 after the Armenian population of Nagorno-Karabakh declared their independence from Azerbaijan. A ceasefire was agreed in 1994 but the dispute over territory remains unsettled, although negotiations in Florida in 2001 promised a peaceful solution.
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