Evidence of human settlement from at least 2200 BC is believed to be that of the Oxus civilization which extended across central Asia from Turkmenistan to Tajikistan. The region came under the influence of the first Persian Empire, centred on Persepolis, from around 550 BC when it was known as Sogdiana. Alexander the Great conquered Sogdiana and the ancient Greek kingdom of Bactria in 327 BC, marrying Roxane, daughter of a Sogdian chieftain. Turkic nomads entered the area from the 5th century AD and control subsequently passed to Arabs, who introduced Islam to Transoxiana in the 8th century. The Persian Samanid dynasty, centred on the cities of Bukhara, Samarkand and Heart, held sway from around 875 AD for over a century, before falling to the Khara-Khanid Khanate.
KeywordsPresidential Election Democratic Party Silk Road Environmental Sustainability Index Soviet Socialist Republic
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