Advertisement

Forms of resistance to slavery

  • Michael Craton
Chapter

Abstract

EVEN such self-interested and racist planter writers of the Caribbean as Edward Long, Elie Moreau de Saint Méry and Bryan Edwards recognized that slave resistance was as inevitable as slavery itself.1 Slaves ‘naturally’ resisted their enslavement because slavery was fundamentally unnatural. Slave resistance of one kind or another was a constant feature of slavery. Only the forms varied across time and place, according to circumstances and opportunities, mutating in rhythm to an internal dynamic, if not also in relation to the larger historical context. This chapter defines the forms of slave resistance, and describes how, if at all, they fitted into an historical process.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 5.
    Michael Craton, Sinews of Empire. A Short History of British Slavery (New York: Doubleday, and London: Temple Smith, 1974), pp. 226–37.Google Scholar
  2. 6.
    Eugene D. Genovese, From Rebellion to Revolution: Afro-American Slave Revolts in the Making of the Modern World (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1979), p. 3.Google Scholar
  3. 7.
    O. Nigel Bolland, ‘Systems of Domination after Slavery: The Control of Land and Labor in the West Indies after 1838’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 23, 4, (1981), pp. 591–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Eric Foner, Reconstruction: America’s Unfinished Revolution (New York: Harper, 1988).Google Scholar
  5. 8.
    Laurent-François Le Noir, Marquis de Rouvray (1783), quoted in J. H. Parry and P. M. Sherlock, A Short History of the West Indies (London: Macmillan, 1960), p. 161Google Scholar
  6. 13.
    Elsa Goveia, The West Indian Slave Laws of the 18th Century (Barbados: Caribbean Universities Press, 1979), pp. 7–53.Google Scholar
  7. Michael Craton, James Walvin and David Wright, Slavery, Abolition and Emancipation: Black Slaves and the British Empire; A Thematic Documentary (New York: Longman, 1976), pp. 159–92.Google Scholar
  8. 16.
    Elsa Goveia, Slave Society in the British Leeward Islands at the end of the Eighteenth Century (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965), pp. 152–202Google Scholar
  9. 17.
    C. L. R. James, Black Jacobins; Toussaint L’Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution (New York: Vintage, 1938)Google Scholar
  10. José Luciano Franco, Revoluciones y conflictos internationales en el Caribe, 1789–1854 (Havana: Ciencias Sociales, 1965)Google Scholar
  11. David Brion Davis, The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution, 1763–1823 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1975)Google Scholar
  12. Thomas B. Ott, The Haitian Revolution, 1789–1804 (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1971).Google Scholar
  13. 19.
    Robert Dirks, The Black Saturnalia: Conflict and its Ritual Expression on British West Indian Slave Plantations (Gainesville: University Presses of Florida, 1987).Google Scholar
  14. 20.
    Cyril Outerbridge Packwood, Chained on the Rock: Slavery in Bermuda (New York: Torres; and Bermuda: Baxter’s, 1975).Google Scholar
  15. 21.
    David Barry Gaspar, Bondmen and Rebels: A Study of Master-Slave Relations in Antigua with Implications for Colonial British America (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1985).Google Scholar
  16. 26.
    Yvan Debbasch, ‘Le Crime d’;empoisonnement aux iles pendant la période esclavagiste’, Revue Française d’;Histoire d’;Outre-Mer, 50, (1963), pp. 137–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gwendolyn Midlo Hall, Social Control in Slave Plantation Societies: A Comparison of St Domingue and Cuba (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1971), pp. 40–1Google Scholar
  18. 27.
    Gordon K. Lewis, Main Currents in Caribbean Thought: The Historical Evolution of Caribbean Society in its Ideological Aspects, 1492–1900 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1983), p. 178.Google Scholar
  19. 29.
    H. Orlando Patterson, The Sociology of Slavery: An Analysis of the Origins, Development and Structure of Negro Slave Society in Jamaica (London: McGibbon and Kee, 1967), pp. 174–81Google Scholar
  20. 33.
    Ciro Flamarion S. Cardoso, Esclavo ou campones? O Protocampesinato Negro nas Americas [Slave or Peasant? Negro Proto-Peasantry in the Americas] (Sâo Paulo: Editora Brasiliense, 1986).Google Scholar
  21. 34.
    Douglas M. Taylor, Languages of the West Indies (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977)Google Scholar
  22. Frederick G. Cassidy, Jamaica Talk: Three Hundred Years of the English Language in Jamaica (London: Macmillan, Institute of Jamaica, 1961)Google Scholar
  23. 35.
    Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in the Americas (New York: Knopf, 1947)Google Scholar
  24. Melville J. Herskovits, The New World Negro: Selected Papers in Afro-american Studies (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1966)Google Scholar
  25. Herbert S. Klein, Slavery in the Americas: A Comparative Study of Virginia and Cuba (New York: Oxford University Press, 1967), pp. 86–126.Google Scholar
  26. 37.
    Mary Turner, Slaves and Missionaries: The Disintegration of Jamaican Slave Society, 1787–1834 (Urbana: Illinois University Press, 1982)Google Scholar
  27. 38.
    J. E. Hutton, A History of Moravian Missions (London: Moravian Publications Office, 1892).Google Scholar
  28. 39.
    Christian G. A. Oldendorp, A Caribbean Mission: History of the Mission of the Evangelical Brethren on the Caribbean Islands of St Thomas, St Croix and St John, translation by Arnold R. Highfield and Vladimir Barac, (Ann Arbor: Karoma, 1987 [1770])Google Scholar
  29. Lorenz Bergmann, Grev Zinzendorf og Hans Indsats i Kirkens og Missionens Historie, 2 vols., (Copenhagen: Haase, 1957, 1961).Google Scholar
  30. 42.
    Troy S. Floyd, The Columbus Dynasty in the Caribbean, 1492–1526 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1973), pp. 95–105.Google Scholar
  31. 44.
    Nancie L. Gonzales, Sojourners of the Caribbean: Ethnogenesis and Ethnohistory of the Garifuna (Urbana: Illinois, 1988)Google Scholar
  32. 46.
    Elizabeth Donnan (ed.), Documents Illustrative of the History of the Slave Trade to America, 4 vols., (Washington, D. C: Carnegie Institute, 1930–1)Google Scholar
  33. 50.
    H. Orlando Patterson, ‘Slavery and Slave Revolts: A Socio-Historical Analysis of the First Maroon War, Jamaica, 1655–1740’, Social and Economic Studies, 19 (1970), pp. 289–335Google Scholar
  34. 56.
    Richard Price, The Guiana Maroons: A Historical and Bibliographical Introduction (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976).Google Scholar
  35. 57.
    J. J. Hartsinck, ‘The Story of the Slave Rebellion in Berbice’, Journal of the British Guiana Museum and Zoo, 20, (1958), III, pp. 7–8Google Scholar
  36. 60.
    Waldemar Westergaard, ‘Account of the Negro Rebellion on St Croix, Danish West Indies, 1759’, Journal of Negro History, 11 (1926) pp. 50–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 61.
    Richard B. Sheridan, ‘The Jamaican Slave Insurrection Scare of 1776 and the American Revolution’, Journal of Negro History, 3, (1975), pp. 290–308Google Scholar
  38. 62.
    Leslie B. Rout, Jr., The African Experience in South America (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976).Google Scholar
  39. 63.
    Jean Fouchard, The Haitian Maroons, Leslie F. Manigat, ‘The Relationship Between Marronage and Slave Revolts and Revolution in St Domingue-Haiti’, in Vera Rubin and Arthur Tuden (eds), Comparative Perspectives on Slavery in New World Plantation Societies (New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1977), pp. 420–38.Google Scholar
  40. 66.
    Jean Fouchard, The Haitian Maroons: Liberty or Death (New York: Blyden, 1981 (1972), pp. 33Google Scholar
  41. 74.
    Michael Duffy, Soldiers, Sugar and Seapower: The British Expeditions to the West Indies and the War against Revolutionary France (London: Oxford University Press, 1987)Google Scholar
  42. 76.
    Roger Norman Buckley, Slaves in Red Coats: The British West India Regiments, 1795–1815 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979).Google Scholar
  43. 80.
    Craton, Testing the Chains, pp. 241–321; Mary Turner, Slaves and Missionaries: The Disintegration of Jamaican Slave Society, 1787–1834 (Urbana, Illinois: Illinois University Press, 1982).Google Scholar
  44. 81.
    Michael Craton, ‘Proto-Peasant Revolts? The Late Slave Rebellions in the British West Indies, 1816–1832’, Past and Present, 85, (November 1979), pp. 99–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 84.
    Eric Williams, From Columbus to Castro: The History of the Caribbean, 1492–1970 (London: Andre Deutsch, 1970)Google Scholar
  46. 89.
    H. Lawaetz, Peter von Schölten, Dansk-Vestindiens sidste Generalguvemor [Peter von Schölten, Danish West Indian Governor-General] (Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 1940), pp. 174–91Google Scholar
  47. Jens Vibaek, Vore Garnie Tropekolonier, 2 vols., (Copenhagen: Fremad, 1966), II, pp. 286–96Google Scholar
  48. 90.
    Blackburn, Colonial Slavery, p. 509; R. A. J. Van Lier, Frontier Society.-A Social Analysis of the History of Surinam (The Hague: Nijhoff, 1971).Google Scholar
  49. 91.
    John Gabriel Stedman, Narrative of a Five-Year’s Expedition against the Revolted Negroes of Surinam in Guiana, on the Wild Coast of South America, from the Year 1771 to 1777 (London: Johnson and Edwards, 1796)Google Scholar
  50. 95.
    Francisco A. Scarano, Sugar and Slavery in Puerto Rico: The Plantation Economy of Ponce, 1800–1850 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984), pp. 3–34.Google Scholar
  51. 96.
    Luis M. Diaz Soler, Historia de la esclavitud negra en Puerto Rico, 3rd ed., (Rio Piedras: Editora Universitaria, 1970)Google Scholar
  52. Guillermo A. Baralt, Esclavos rebeldes: conspiraciones y sublevaciones de esclavos en Puerto Rico, 1795–1873 (Rio Piedras: Ediciones Huracan, 1982)Google Scholar
  53. Benjamin Nistal-Moret, Esclavos prôfugos y cimmarones en Puerto Rico (Rio Piedras: University of Puerto Rico, 1982)Google Scholar
  54. Arturo Morales Carrion et al., Auge y decadencia de al trata negrera en Puerto Rico, 1820–1860 (San Juan: Institute of Puerto Rican Culture, 1978).Google Scholar
  55. 99.
    José Luciano Franco, ‘La conspiraciön de Aponte, 1812’, in Esayos histôricos (Havana: Ciencias sociales, 1974), pp. 127–80Google Scholar
  56. 100.
    David R. Murray, Odious Commerce: Britain, Spain and the Abolition of the Cuban Slave Trade (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980)Google Scholar
  57. David Eltis, Economic Growth and the Ending of the Transatlantic Slave Trade (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987).Google Scholar
  58. 101.
    Robert L. Paquette, Sugar Is Made with Blood: The Conspiracy of La Escalera and the Conflict between Empires over Slavery in Cuba (Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press, 1988).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© UNESCO 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Craton

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations