Advertisement

Religious Beliefs

  • Mary Turner
Chapter

Abstract

Religious beliefs illuminate mankind’;s eternal struggle to interpret the external forces that control daily life. The universality of religious thought demonstrates that all religions are species of the same class and deal with problems fundamental to the human race: life and death, health and sickness, the forces of destiny as they affect both the individual and the collective. Viewed historically, these efforts to explain the contradictory forces that determine human fate in terms of a universe filled with spiritual forces, dominated both Europe and Africa until a few eighteenth-century European philosophers attacked this method and sought to analyse material life in secular terms.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 3.
    John S. Mbiti, African Religions, p. 95; Anne Hilton, The Kingdom of Kongo (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985), p. 49.Google Scholar
  2. 4.
    Willy de Craemer, Jan Vansina, Renée C. Fox, ‘Religious Movements in Central Africa: A Theoretical Study’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 18, 4 (1976), p. 460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 5.
    Terence O. Ranger, ‘Religious Movements and Politics in Sub-Saharan Africa’, African Studies Review, 29, 2 (1986), p. 44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 6.
    Manuel Moreno Fraginals, ‘Cultural contributions and Deculturation’, in M. Moreno Fraginals (ed.) Africa in Latin America, translated by Leonor Blum (New York, Paris: Holmes&Meier Publishers, 1984), p. 19.Google Scholar
  5. 9.
    Sidney W. Mintz and Richard Price, An Anthropological Approach to the Afro-American Past (Philadelphia: ISHI, 1976), p. 25.Google Scholar
  6. 10.
    Cf. Richard Price, First-Time, The Historical Vision of an Afro-American People (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983).Google Scholar
  7. H. U. E. Thoden van Velzen and W. van Wetering, The Great Father and the Danger: Religious Cults, Material Forces, and Collective Fantasies in the World of the Surinamese Maroons (Leiden: Foris Publications, 1988).Google Scholar
  8. 13.
    Roger Bastide, African Civilizations in the New World, translated by Peter Green (London: Harper Row, 1971), pp. 91–2Google Scholar
  9. Lawrence W. Levine, Black Culture and Black Consciousness (New York: Oxford University Press, 1971), pp. 41–2.Google Scholar
  10. 14.
    Melville J. Herskovits, Life in a Haitian Valley (New York: Knopf, 1937.Google Scholar
  11. 15.
    C. G. A. Oldendorp, A Caribbean Mission, edited by Arnold R. Highfield, translated by Vladimir Barac (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1987), pp. 187Google Scholar
  12. Edward Long, The History of Jamaica (London: Lowndes, 1774), vol. 2, p. 378Google Scholar
  13. 17.
    Moreau de Saint-Méry, Description... de la Partie Française de l’isle Saint-Domingue (Philadelphia: The author, 1797), vol. 1, p. 69Google Scholar
  14. George E. Simpson, Religious Cults in the Caribbean (Rio Piedras: University of Puerto Rico Press, 1970), pp. 161–3Google Scholar
  15. 18.
    Richard Sheridan, Doctors and Slaves, 1680–1834 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985), pp. 76–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 23.
    J. G. Stedman, Narrative of a Five Year’s expedition against the Revolted Negroes of Surinam (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1971 [1796]), pp. 364–6Google Scholar
  17. 26.
    B. W. Higman, Slave Populations of the British Caribbean 1807–34 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976), p. 115Google Scholar
  18. 32.
    Franklin W. Knight, Slave Society in Cuba (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1970), pp. 10–22Google Scholar
  19. Herbert S. Klein, Slavery in the Americas (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967), p. 101.Google Scholar
  20. 34.
    David Eltis, ‘The Nineteenth-Century Transatlantic Slave Trade: An Annual Time Series of Imports to the Americas Broken down by Region’, Hispanic America Historical Review, 67, 1 (1987), pp. 121–33Google Scholar
  21. 37.
    Francisco A. Scarano, Sugar and Slavery in Puerto Rico (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984), p. 132.Google Scholar
  22. 38.
    Rebecca J. Scott, Slave Emancipation in Cuba, 1860–99 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985), pp. 267–8.Google Scholar
  23. 39.
    Elsa V. Goveia, Slave Society in the British Leeward Islands at the end of the Eighteenth Century (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1969), pp. 290–1Google Scholar
  24. Mary Turner, Slaves and Missionaries (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1982), p. 83.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© UNESCO 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mary Turner

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations