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Memories of Hayti: African American Community in Durham, North Carolina, 1890–1970

  • Oscar R. Williams
Chapter

Abstract

The Jim Crow era is naturally portrayed as an oppressive era for African Americans. African Americans’ civil rights were eroded through US Supreme Court cases such as the Civil Rights Cases of 1883 and Plessy vs. Ferguson, thus sanctioning and enforcing racial segregation.1 Disfranchisement was the order of the day as restrictive policies such as the poll tax, literacy test, grandfather clause, and the white primary were directed against African American voters.2 Lastly, racial violence such as lynchings and race riots kept African Americans in a state of constant terror and intimidation.3

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Notes

  1. 1.
    Rayford W. Logan, The Betrayal of the Negro: From Rutherford B. Hayes to Woodrow Wilson (New York: Da Capo Press, 1954), 108–11.Google Scholar
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    Darlene Clark Hine, William C. Hine, and Stanley Harrold, The African American Odyssey (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2000), 312–13.Google Scholar
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    Dorothy Phelps Jones, The End of an Era (Durham, NC: Brown Enterprises, Inc.) 2001, 66–67.Google Scholar
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    Ron Thomas, They cleared the Lane: The NBA’s Black Pioneers (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2002) 165–67.Google Scholar
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    Jim L. Sumner, A History of Sports in North Carolina (Raleigh, NC: Division of Archives and History, 1990), 81Google Scholar
  9. 24.
    Charles Watts, “Lincoln Hospital of Durham, North Carolina: A Short History,” Journal of the National Medical Association, 57 (March 1965): 178.Google Scholar
  10. 33.
    Jean Bradley Anderson, Durham County: A History of Durham County, North Carolina (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1990) 407.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Gayle T. Tate and Lewis A. Randolph 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oscar R. Williams

There are no affiliations available

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