• Gayle T. Tate
  • Lewis A. Randolph


Before the sizeable waves of black migrations transformed urban black communities in the twentieth century, much of the prevailing sentiment regarding race, blackness, and the “other” had been determined for several centuries. As the notion of race evolved over the course of three centuries, it would be appropriated by those in power, changed depending on the economic vagaries of industrial capitalism, to maintain hegemony as well as legitimize the political powerlessness and the economic and social marginalization of African Americans. Indeed, as urban black pioneers responded to the “push” from the economic distress of the South and other parts of the diaspora, their migration to new urban spaces and subsequent push for jobs, education, community space and a reallocation of resources, exacerbated existing ethnic tensions and racial antipathies. Decidedly, the major flashpoints of ethnic conflict were the marketplace and residential space as labor and community defined the urban dwellers means of survival.


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© Gayle T. Tate and Lewis A. Randolph 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gayle T. Tate
  • Lewis A. Randolph

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