• Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


Sweden was covered by a thick ice cap until 14,000 years ago, when the ice began to retreat. The first human traces, in southern Sweden, date from 10,000 BC. Between 8000 and 6000 BC the country was populated by hunters and fishermen, using simple stone tools. Artefacts found in graves show that the Bronze Age was marked by a relatively advanced culture. From 500 BC to AD 800 agriculture became the basis for society and the economy. The Viking Age (800–1050) took expansion eastwards. Swedish Vikings reached into today’s Russia, where they set up trading stations and principalities, such as Novgorod and Rurik. The Vikings also travelled to the Black and Caspian Seas and developed trading links with the Byzantine Empire and the Arabs.


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Further Reading

  1. Statistics Sweden. Statistik Årsbok/Statistical Yearbook of Sweden.— Historisk statistik för Sverige (Historical Statistics of Sweden). 1955 ff.—Allmän månadsstatistik (Monthly Digest of Swedish Statistics).—Statistiska meddelanden (Statistical Reports). From 1963Google Scholar
  2. Henrekson, M., An Economic Analysis of Swedish Government Expenditure. 1992Google Scholar
  3. Nordstrom, Byron J., The History of Sweden. 2002Google Scholar
  4. Petersson, O., Swedish Government and Politics. 1994Google Scholar
  5. Schön, Lennart, An Economic History of Sweden. 2012Google Scholar
  6. Sejersted, Francis, The Age of Social Democracy: Norway and Sweden in the Twentieth Century. 2011Google Scholar
  7. Sveriges statskalender. Annual, from 1813Google Scholar
  8. National library: Kungliga Biblioteket, PO Box 5039, SE–102 41 Stockholm.Google Scholar
  9. National Statistical Office: Statistics Sweden, PO Box 24300, SE–104 51 Stockholm.Google Scholar
  10. Swedish Institute Website:

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

There are no affiliations available

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